Agamemnon - Wikipedia
The champion who refuses Agamemnon's many gifts in Book 9 returns los and to the relationship between Patroklos and Achilleus-into a vir- tue. the son represented his father's household in assemblies and on the bat-. Achilles did have a son who participated in the Trojan War and was of the Greeks Agamemnon appropriated Briseis for himself, Achilles expressed his interest in women regardless of whatever his relationship was with Patroclus. Achilles in a Dress? One reason for the confusion may arise from Achilles' mother Thetis. He was the son (or grandson) of Atreus, king of Mycenae, and his wife Menelaus succeeded Tyndareus, and Agamemnon recovered his father's kingdom.
The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy and Achilles himself still to come. When Penthesileaqueen of the Amazons and daughter of Aresarrives in Troy, Priam hopes that she will defeat Achilles.
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After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later. Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her. Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus becomes Achilles' closest companion.
When Memnonson of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopiaslays Antilochus, Achilles once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon. Consequently, Eos will not let the sun rise, until Zeus persuades her. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon unlike Hector was also the son of a goddess.
Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad's description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopiswhich was composed after the Iliad, possibly in the 7th century BC.
The Aethiopis is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors. Achilles and Patroclus[ edit ] Main article: Achilles and Patroclus Achilles tending Patroclus wounded by an arrow, Attic red-figure kylixc. In the Iliad, it appears to be the model of a deep and loyal friendship. Homer does not suggest that Achilles and his close friend Patroclus were lovers.
In 5th-century BC Athens, the intense bond was often viewed in light of the Greek custom of paiderasteia. In Plato's Symposium, the participants in a dialogue about love assume that Achilles and Patroclus were a couple; Phaedrus argues that Achilles was the younger and more beautiful one so he was the beloved and Patroclus was the lover.
Death[ edit ] The death of Achilles, as predicted by Hector with his dying breath, was brought about by Paris with an arrow to the heel according to Statius.
In some versions, the god Apollo guided Paris' arrow.
Some retellings also state that Achilles was scaling the gates of Troy and was hit with a poisoned arrow. All of these versions deny Paris any sort of valour, owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield.
His bones were mingled with those of Patroclusand funeral games were held. He was represented in the Aethiopis as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the river Danube. Dying Achilles Achilleas thniskon in the gardens of the Achilleion Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena.
Achilles asks Priam for Polyxena's hand in marriage. Priam is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior. But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris, who would have to give up Helen if Achilles married his sister, hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles with a divine arrow, killing him.
In the Odyssey, Agamemnon informs Achilles of his pompous burial and the erection of his mound at the Hellespont while they are receiving the dead suitors in Hades. In Book 11 of Homer's OdysseyOdysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades.
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One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as "blessed in life, blessed in death", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead.
But Achilles then asks Odysseus of his son's exploits in the Trojan war, and when Odysseus tells of Neoptolemus' heroic actions, Achilles is filled with satisfaction. Fate of Achilles' armour[ edit ] Ajax carries off the body of Achilles, Attic black-figure lekythos from Sicily c. They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men, decided Odysseus was more deserving of the armour.
Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned him the ire of Athena. Athena temporarily made Ajax so mad with grief and anguish that he began killing sheep, thinking them his comrades. After a while, when Athena lifted his madness and Ajax realized that he had actually been killing sheep, Ajax was left so ashamed that he committed suicide.
Odysseus eventually gave the armour to Neoptolemusthe son of Achilles. A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of PhaselisLycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf. The city was visited in BC by Alexander the Greatwho envisioned himself as the new Achilles and carried the Iliad with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear.
At some point in the war, Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game petteia. The cult of Achilles is illustrated in the BC Polyxena sarcophaguswhere the sacrifice of Polixena near the tumulus of Achilles is depicted.
The Ilienses perform sacred ceremonies in honour of them all, and even of Ajax. But they do not worship Herculesalleging as a reason that he ravaged their country. Early dedicatory inscriptions from the Greek colonies on the Black Sea graffiti and inscribed clay disks, these possibly being votive offeringsfrom Olbia, the area of Berezan Island and the Tauric Chersonese  attest the existence of a heroic cult of Achilles  from the sixth century BC onwards.
In the following chapter of his book, Pliny refers to the same island as Achillea and introduces two further names for it: The "present day" measures, he gives at this point, seem to account for an identification of Achillea or Leuce with today's Snake Island. A second exploration in showed that the construction of a lighthouse had destroyed all traces of this temple. A fifth century BC black-glazed lekythos inscription, found on the island inreads: The Periplus of the Euxine Sea c.
It is said that the goddess Thetis raised this island from the sea, for her son Achilles, who dwells there. Here is his temple and his statue, an archaic work. This island is not inhabited, and goats graze on it, not many, which the people who happen to arrive here with their ships, sacrifice to Achilles.
In this temple are also deposited a great many holy gifts, craters, rings and precious stones, offered to Achilles in gratitude. One can still read inscriptions in Greek and Latin, in which Achilles is praised and celebrated. Some of these are worded in Patroclus' honour, because those who wish to be favored by Achilles, honour Patroclus at the same time.
There are also in this island countless numbers of sea birds, which look after Achilles' temple. Every morning they fly out to sea, wet their wings with water, and return quickly to the temple and sprinkle it. And after they finish the sprinkling, they clean the hearth of the temple with their wings. Other people say still more, that some of the men who reach this island, come here intentionally. They bring animals in their ships, destined to be sacrificed.
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Some of these animals they slaughter, others they set free on the island, in Achilles' honour. But there are others, who are forced to come to this island by sea storms. As they have no sacrificial animals, but wish to get them from the god of the island himself, they consult Achilles' oracle. They ask permission to slaughter the victims chosen from among the animals that graze freely on the island, and to deposit in exchange the price which they consider fair.
But in case the oracle denies them permission, because there is an oracle here, they add something to the price offered, and if the oracle refuses again, they add something more, until at last, the oracle agrees that the price is sufficient.
And then the victim doesn't run away any more, but waits willingly to be caught. So, there is a great quantity of silver there, consecrated to the hero, as price for the sacrificial victims. To some of the people who come to this island, Achilles appears in dreams, to others he would appear even during their navigation, if they were not too far away, and would instruct them as to which part of the island they would better anchor their ships.
It is said that there, in Leuce island, reside the souls of Achilles and other heroes, and that they wander through the uninhabited valleys of this island; this is how Jove rewarded the men who had distinguished themselves through their virtues, because through virtue they had acquired everlasting honour". In this island there is also Achilles' temple and his statue". Pausanias reports that the Delphic Pythia sent a lord of Croton to be cured of a chest wound.
Alexander the Greatson of the Epirote princess Olympiascould therefore also claim this descent, and in many ways strove to be like his great ancestor. Homer painted a more nuanced picture: In addition to these qualities, his Achilles was vengeful and quick to anger and could be petulant when he did not get his way. He was also deeply loyal and would sacrifice anything for his friends and family.
He did this by meddling in their political and emotional affairs. Each of the goddesses offered Paris a bribe in exchange for his vote.
She promised to give the young prince the most beautiful wife in the world. Unfortunately, the wife in question—Helen, the daughter of Zeus—was already married to someone else: Menelaus, the king of Sparta. He has met with great success—in fact, he is undefeated in battle—but the war itself has reached a stalemate.
In a battle that took place before the poem begins, Agamemnon had taken as a concubine a young Trojan woman named Chryseis. Enraged, Apollo punished the Greek armies by sending a plague to kill the soldiers one by one. As his ranks thinned, Agamemnon finally agreed to allow Chryseis to return to her father.
However, he demanded a replacement concubine in exchange: Achilles did as his commander asked and relinquished his bride.