Arthur Phillip - Wikipedia
Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October – 31 August ) was a Royal Navy officer and the . The marriage was unhappy, and the couple separated in when Phillip Like his predecessor, Lord Germain, he turned for advice to Arthur Phillip. . Phillip befriended an Eora man called Bennelong, and later took him to . When celebrating Captain Cook, let's remember the advice he ignored . Governor Phillip did acknowledge the cultural practices demonstrated Henry had a close relationship with Bennelong which started at the time when. Bennelong was kidnapped on the instruction of Arthur Phillip, Governor of the new colony. Phillip wanted to learn about the Indigenous peoples and their land.
Convicts in Britain had no right to sue, and Sinclair had boasted that he could not be sued by them. Despite this, the court found for the plaintiffs and ordered the captain to make restitution for the loss of their possessions.
In one paragraph he wrote: That there can be no slavery in a free land, and consequently no slaves. Phillip also had to adopt a policy towards the Eora Aboriginal peoplewho lived around the waters of Sydney Harbour.
Phillip befriended an Eora man called Bennelong and later took him to England. On the beach at Manlya misunderstanding arose and Phillip was speared in the shoulder: Soon, a virulent disease, smallpox that was believed to be on account of the white settlers, and other European-introduced epidemics, ravaged the Eora population. The Governor's main problem was with his own military officers, who wanted large grants of land, which Phillip had not been authorised to grant.
Scurvy broke out, and in October Phillip had to send Sirius to Cape Town for supplies, and strict rationing was introduced, with thefts of food punished by hanging. Convict John MacIntyre had been fatally speared during a hunting expedition by unknown Aboriginal people apparently without provocation.
MacIntyre swore on his death bed that he had done them no harm, but marine officer Watkin Tench was suspicious of the claim.
Tench was sent on a punitive expedition but finding no Aboriginal people other than Bennelong took no action. The population of about 2, was adequately housed and fresh food was being grown. Phillip assigned a convict, James Ruseland at Rose Hill now Parramatta to establish proper farming, and when Ruse succeeded he received the first land grant in the colony. Other convicts followed his example. Sirius was wrecked in March at the satellite settlement of Norfolk Islanddepriving Phillip of vital supplies.
In June the Second Fleet arrived with hundreds more convicts, most of them too sick to work. Statue of Arthur Phillip in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney By December Phillip was ready to return to England, but the colony had largely been forgotten in London and no instructions reached him, so he carried on.
In he was advised that the government would send out two convoys of convicts annually, plus adequate supplies. But July, when the vessels of the Third Fleet began to arrive, with 2, more convicts, food again ran short, and he had to send the ship Atlantic to Calcutta for supplies.
The whaling industry was established, ships were visiting Sydney to trade, and convicts whose sentences had expired were taking up farming.
John Macarthur and other officers were importing sheep and beginning to grow wool. The colony was still very short of skilled farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, and the convicts continued to work as little as possible, even though they were working mainly to grow their own food. In late Phillip, whose health was suffering, relinquished his governorship and sailed for England on the ship Atlantictaking with him many specimens of plants and animals.
He also took Bennelong and his friend Yemmerrawanneanother young Indigenous Australian who, unlike Bennelong, would succumb to English weather and disease and not live to make the journey home.
The European population of New South Wales at his departure was 4, of whom 3, were convicts. The early years of the colony had been years of struggle and hardship, but the worst was over, and there were no further famines in New South Wales. Phillip arrived in London in May His health gradually recovered and in he went back to sea, holding a series of commands and responsible posts in the wars against the French.
In January he became a Rear-Admiral. Inaged 67, he retired from the Navy with the rank of Admiral of the Blueand spent most of the rest of his life at Bath. He nursed two sick children named Nabaree and Abaroo back to good health, before he fell victim himself and died in May Bennelong, born c of the Wangal people, is one of the most notable Aboriginal people in the early history of Australia. Similarly to Arabanoo, Bennelong soon adopted European dress and ways, and learned English. Bennelong is also known to have taught George Bass the language of the Sydney Aboriginal peoples, and gave Phillip the Aboriginal name Wolawaree to locate him in a kinship relationship.
This was necessary in order to communicate customs and relationship to the land. Bennelong served the colonisers by teaching them about Aboriginal customs and language in an attempt to aid relations between the two groups. In May Bennelong was present at Manly when Phillip was speared and persuaded the governor that the attack was caused by a misunderstanding. Later that year, he asked the governor to build him a hut on what became known as Bennelong Point, the site of Sydney Opera House.
Here he entertained the governor a year later. Yemmerrawanne died and was buried in Britain, but Bennelong returned to Sydney in Februaryafter what must have been an enormously challenging confrontation with an alien culture.
He exhibited a new sense of dress and behaviour, and tried to influence his family to imitate these things. Bennelong was long troubled by the consumption of alcohol. He frequented Sydney less often and eventually died at Kissing Point on 3 January While Bennelong suffered from the worst aspects of enculturation, he also represents those who tried to change the behaviour of Europeans on Aboriginal lands.
Between and Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy lead a guerrilla war against the British settlement at Sydney Cove, and because of his resistance to the invaders, he became one of the most remembered and written about historical figures in Australian Aboriginal history. He is regarded as a courageous resistance fighter. He led many attacks on the settlement from Botany Bay to the Parramatta area and later to Toongabbee Toongabbie. In he speared a much disliked convict gamekeeper by the name of John McIntyre and was then wanted for murder.
Its slow progress reflected the governor's inability to find adequate means of surmounting the many obstacles in his path.
Poor seasons, the lack of suitable equipment and the difficulty of clearing and cultivating the thickly wooded land added to his problems. By a mere acres 86 ha were under crop and the number of farm animals amounted to only head, for some of the cattle brought out had strayed, while others had died or been slaughtered.
Bennelong and Governor Phillip / Helen Chapman. - Version details - Trove
The building programme, by contrast, had advanced more satisfactorily, resulting in the erection of dwelling places for the governor, the officers, the convicts and some of the troops, together with several store-houses. Having completed these and other essential tasks Phillip was able to give more attention to farming.
The area cultivated by government labour expanded much more rapidly after and by October some acres ha were under crop on the public domain; although livestock was still scarce important advances had been made towards the attainment of self-sufficiency in grain. The community was still vitally dependent on overseas supplies for most of its needs, but no longer was survival thought to be impossible.
Providing for material needs formed only part of the task of running what was primarily a prison. Effective discipline was a vital necessity in an isolated community where convicts far outnumbered their gaolers and where it was impracticable to segregate them behind bars. Phillip housed the convicts in a series of huts so arranged that they could be policed at night; but the watch of necessity had to be drawn mainly from among the better convicts, and this caused further trouble with the marines who complained bitterly on the odd occasion when a convict policeman detected one of their number breaking the law.
Offences committed within the colony were, if only minor, tried by the magistrates, or when more serious by the Civil and Criminal Courts.
Phillip sat on neither bench, but he was able within limits to determine their composition and to vary their sentences, thereby influencing the course of justice.
Before leaving England he had stated his opposition to the death penalty save for murder and sodomy, which crimes he felt best punished by handing guilty persons over to be eaten by 'the natives of New Zealand'. This harsh sentence was never imposed, but there were some executions, particularly for the theft of food in time of scarcity. More usual was the lash, then a standard punishment in the army and navy, or committal to a gaol-gang. Phillip's discipline was firm, but by the standards of his time could not be considered unduly harsh or severe.
Moreover he recognized the need to encourage good behaviour as well as to punish bad conduct. He rewarded signs of industry by personal commendation and sometimes by appointment to positions of trust, which carried various privileges. He granted twenty-six pardons to exemplary characters, including fourteen prisoners who had behaved well when the Guardian was wrecked. In a further effort to encourage the convicts Phillip made it clear that land grants would only be given to those who proved their worth while under sentence.
These measures indicated his desire to reform his charges, an object to which the Home Office paid only lip service. How much success attended his efforts is difficult to say. Contemporaries as well as more recent writers, however, have paid testimony to the effectiveness of his rule. In general the convicts responded well to his guidance.
Crimes against the person were rare and while thefts were fairly common many of these resulted from sheer desperation and hunger. One of the offences Phillip refused to tolerate was ill treatment of the Aboriginals. In his Instructions he had been ordered to establish contact and maintain friendly relations with them and he took these humanitarian injunctions seriously. He interested himself in the life of the natives whose customs also attracted considerable attention from his fellow officers.
He made them presents, placed two, Colebe and Bennelongunder his personal care, and did his utmost to win and keep their friendship. At first he seemed to have succeeded. The Aboriginals evinced no desire to drive the whites out and showed admiration for their power and their leader whose missing front tooth apparently possessed symbolic value. Friction later developed and matters eventually reached the point where Phillip was forced to take punitive action, though he continued to exercise restraint even after being wounded by a spear at Manly Cove.
Throughout he sought to maintain harmony while gradually persuading the Aboriginals of the superiority of British civilization. Settlers who interfered with their pursuits remained liable to heavy punishment. Although in convicts and their gaolers made up the bulk of the population there gradually appeared others who fell into neither category. As early as July a small batch of convicts sought their freedom, claiming that their sentences had expired.
Through oversight Phillip had not been supplied with their records and being unable to verify their claims shelved them. Later this deficiency was remedied enabling the governor to liberate the growing number of convicts who each year completed their sentences. By some persons, of whom the majority were men, had been restored to freedom. Some secured passages home but most were unable to do so and were obliged with diminishing reluctance to stay in New South Wales.
There they found employment mainly on government works, but a minority struck out on their own and took up farming, introducing a new element into an economy dominated by public enterprise. Phillip's second Commission dated 2 April had given him the power of granting land to approved persons, defined in his first Instructions as former convicts.
The British government was anxious to encourage people of this kind to remain at Port Jackson and for this reason offered them small plots of land and full maintenance during the early months of operations.
The Home Office also indicated its willingness to make grants to the non-commissioned officers and privates of the marines who might elect to remain after completing a tour of duty, and to any migrants who might arrive. Phillip was ordered to examine the soil, report on its quality and suggest terms on which it might be alienated. Without fully waiting for his advice, however, the secretary of state dispatched on 22 August fresh Instructions on the granting of land.
The only residents not permitted to own land were the civil staff and military officers, whose pleas for this concession were not satisfied until after Phillip had departed. The governor himself had viewed their requests with no great enthusiasm. While willing to allow them to grow foodstuff in time of shortage or run livestock on plots of crown land he was not happy at the thought of their becoming property owners. He feared their attention might be distracted from their duties.
He realized that they would wish to employ convicts, and these he thought might be left too much to their own devices. Shortly before leaving England he stressed that insufficient convicts were available to make it possible for the officers' likely demands to be met. Phillip was also reserved in his attitude towards the issuing of land grants to emancipists, for he rightly felt that many would never succeed at farming.
Historians have been unable to agree as to the exact area he alienated. Judging by the Register of Land Grants, which has not been used by earlier writers, he granted acres ha on the mainland. At Norfolk Island he was obliged to recall some of the grants originally issued and by December had reallotted titles to a mere 49 acres 20 hamaking a grand total of acres ha.
This was considerably less than the area alienated by his immediate successors, a fact which resulted not from niggardliness but from the unwillingness of more than a handful of persons to try their hand at what was to most an unfamiliar occupation. Apart from James Ruse there were no requests for land until and by December only seventy-three persons occupied holdings on the mainland. With characteristic thoroughness the governor did his utmost to ensure the success of a group whose activities might improve the food situation.
He personally selected land for them in the vicinity of Parramatta close to water, protection, market and supplies.
Where necessary he varied his Instructions in their interests providing them with aid for eighteen months instead of the year stipulated by the British government. Originally he had been ordered to reserve between each acre 61 ha block 'a space of ten acres 4 ha in breadth and of thirty acres 12 ha in depth'. Realizing the dangers of natives lurking in the undergrowth on such land and convinced of the need for farmers to live side by side so as to provide mutual aid he successfully recommended the abandonment of this injunction.
To deter settlers from disposing of land he incorporated in the title deeds, whose wording he himself devised, a clause forbidding them to sell their grants until they had occupied them continuously for at least five years.
On two occasions he took land away from men who had made little attempt to cultivate it. The progress of farming, however, was inevitably slow, for the settlers possessed few resources, inadequate tools and little experience. By December they had cleared little more than acres haowned scarcely any livestock and were still mostly dependent on government aid for survival.
Although Phillip's reputation as an administrator must rest primarily on his work on the mainland of New South Wales, Norfolk Island also came under his control. In he had been ordered to settle this potentially useful spot to forestall occupation by any other power. On 12 February he made P.
King the first commandant and two days later dispatched him to the island with a party of twenty-one, including fifteen convicts.