10 Tips for Managing Chronic Bronchitis | Everyday Health
You inhale air into your nose or mouth, and it travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, or trachea. Your trachea then divides. The trachea, or windpipe, extends downward from the base of the larynx. It lies partly in the neck and partly in the chest cavity. The walls of the trachea are. Living well with chronic bronchitis entails making good choices. Learn about lifestyle 1 / 11 Making Lifestyle Changes Can Make a Difference. A chronic cough.
In the tiny capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is freed from the hemoglobin and moves into the cells. Carbon dioxide, which is made by the cells as they do their work, moves out of these cells into the capillaries, where most of it becomes dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
Blood rich in carbon dioxide then returns to the heart via the veins. From the heart, this blood is pumped to the lungs, where carbon dioxide passes into the alveoli to be exhaled.
The most common problems of the respiratory system are: More than 20 million people in the United States have asthma, and it's the 1 reason that kids frequently miss school. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airways to tighten and narrow. Often triggered by irritants such as cigarette smoke or exposure to cold air, viral or bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, and exposure to animal dander or pollens in kids who are allergic to them.
Asthma flares involve contraction of the muscles and swelling of the lining of the tiny airways. The resulting narrowing of the airways prevents air from flowing properly, causing wheezing and difficulty breathing, sometimes to the point of being life-threatening.
Controlling asthma starts with an asthma action planwhich usually involves avoiding asthma triggers and, sometimes, taking medicines. Not to be confused with bronchitis, bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest branches of the bronchial tree. Bronchiolitis affects mostly infants and young children, and can cause wheezing and serious difficulty breathing. It's usually caused by specific viruses in the wintertime, including respiratory syncytial virus RSV.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. COPD is a term that describes two lung diseases — emphysema and chronic bronchitis: Long-term smoking often causes emphysema, and although it seldom affects kids and teens, it can have its roots in the teen and childhood years. Talking to your kids about smoking is a key part of preventing smoking-related diseases. In emphysema, the lungs produce an excessive amount of mucus and the alveoli become damaged. It becomes difficult to breathe and get enough oxygen into the blood.
In chronic bronchitis, a common disease of adults and teens, the membranes lining the larger bronchial tubes become inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is produced. The person develops a bad cough to get rid of the mucus.
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic bronchitis in teens. Other Conditions Common cold. Caused by more than different viruses that cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, the common cold is the most common respiratory infection.
Symptoms may include a mild fever, cough, headache, runny nose, sneezing, and sore throat. A cough is a symptom of an illness, not an illness itself. There are many different types of cough and many different causes, ranging from not-so-serious to life-threatening. Some of the more common causes affecting kids are the common cold, asthma, sinusitis, seasonal allergies, croup, and pneumonia.
Among the most serious causes of cough are tuberculosis TB and whooping cough pertussis. Affecting more than 30, kids and young adults in the United States, cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited disease affecting the lungs.
- Lungs and Respiratory System
- 10 Tips for Managing Chronic Bronchitis
- Respiratory disease
Affecting primarily the respiratory and digestive systems, CF causes mucus in the body to be abnormally thick and sticky. The mucus can clog the airways in the lungs and make a person more vulnerable to bacterial infections.
This inflammation of the lungs usually happens because of bacterial or viral infection. Pneumonia causes fever and inflammation of lung tissue, and makes breathing difficult because the lungs have to work harder to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
Common causes of pneumonia are influenza the flu and infection with the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. This is when the blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs is abnormally high, which means the heart has to work harder to pump blood against that high pressure. Pulmonary hypertension may happen in children because of a congenital present at birth heart defect or because of a health condition.
Respiratory Diseases of Newborns Several respiratory conditions can affect a newborn baby just starting to breathe for the first time. Premature babies are at increased risk for conditions such as: Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn. Babies born prematurely may not have enough surfactant in the lungs. Surfactant helps to keep the baby's alveoli open; without surfactant, the lungs collapse and the baby has trouble breathing.
BPD involves abnormal development of lung tissue. Sometimes called chronic lung disease, or CLD, it's a disease in infants characterized by inflammation and scarring in the lungs.
It develops most often in premature babies who are born with underdeveloped lungs.
Meconium aspiration is when a newborn inhales aspirates a mixture of meconium baby's first feces, ordinarily passed after birth and amniotic fluid during labor and delivery. The inhaled meconium can cause a partial or complete blockage of the baby's airways.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn PPHN. In the uterus, a baby's circulation bypasses the lungs. Normally, when a baby is born and begins to breathe air, his or her body quickly adapts and begins the process of respiration. The left and right bronchi run into each lung before branching off into smaller secondary bronchi.
The secondary bronchi carry air into the lobes of the lungs—2 in the left lung and 3 in the right lung. The secondary bronchi in turn split into many smaller tertiary bronchi within each lobe.
respiratory disease | Definition, Causes, & Major Types | south-park-episodes.info
The tertiary bronchi split into many smaller bronchioles that spread throughout the lungs. Each bronchiole further splits into many smaller branches less than a millimeter in diameter called terminal bronchioles. Finally, the millions of tiny terminal bronchioles conduct air to the alveoli of the lungs.
As the airway splits into the tree-like branches of the bronchi and bronchioles, the structure of the walls of the airway begins to change.
The primary bronchi contain many C-shaped cartilage rings that firmly hold the airway open and give the bronchi a cross-sectional shape like a flattened circle or a letter D. As the bronchi branch into secondary and tertiary bronchi, the cartilage becomes more widely spaced and more smooth muscle and elastin protein is found in the walls.
The bronchioles differ from the structure of the bronchi in that they do not contain any cartilage at all. The presence of smooth muscles and elastin allow the smaller bronchi and bronchioles to be more flexible and contractile. The main function of the bronchi and bronchioles is to carry air from the trachea into the lungs. Smooth muscle tissue in their walls helps to regulate airflow into the lungs.
When greater volumes of air are required by the body, such as during exercise, the smooth muscle relaxes to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles.
The dilated airway provides less resistance to airflow and allows more air to pass into and out of the lungs. The smooth muscle fibers are able to contract during rest to prevent hyperventilation.
The bronchi and bronchioles also use the mucus and cilia of their epithelial lining to trap and move dust and other contaminants away from the lungs. Lungs The lungs are a pair of large, spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to the diaphragm.
The negative pressure allows the lungs to passively fill with air as they relax. The left and right lungs are slightly different in size and shape due to the heart pointing to the left side of the body.
The left lung is therefore slightly smaller than the right lung and is made up of 2 lobes while the right lung has 3 lobes. The interior of the lungs is made up of spongy tissues containing many capillaries and around 30 million tiny sacs known as alveoli. The alveoli are cup-shaped structures found at the end of the terminal bronchioles and surrounded by capillaries. The alveoli are lined with thin simple squamous epithelium that allows air entering the alveoli to exchange its gases with the blood passing through the capillaries.
Muscles of Respiration Surrounding the lungs are sets of muscles that are able to cause air to be inhaled or exhaled from the lungs. The principal muscle of respiration in the human body is the diaphragm, a thin sheet of skeletal muscle that forms the floor of the thorax.
When the diaphragm contracts, it moves inferiorly a few inches into the abdominal cavity, expanding the space within the thoracic cavity and pulling air into the lungs. Relaxation of the diaphragm allows air to flow back out the lungs during exhalation. Between the ribs are many small intercostal muscles that assist the diaphragm with expanding and compressing the lungs.
These muscles are divided into 2 groups: The internal intercostal muscles are the deeper set of muscles and depress the ribs to compress the thoracic cavity and force air to be exhaled from the lungs. The external intercostals are found superficial to the internal intercostals and function to elevate the ribs, expanding the volume of the thoracic cavity and causing air to be inhaled into the lungs. Physiology of the Respiratory System Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange.
The respiratory system uses both a negative pressure system and the contraction of muscles to achieve pulmonary ventilation. The negative pressure system of the respiratory system involves the establishment of a negative pressure gradient between the alveoli and the external atmosphere. The pleural membrane seals the lungs and maintains the lungs at a pressure slightly below that of the atmosphere when the lungs are at rest.
This results in air following the pressure gradient and passively filling the lungs at rest. As the lungs fill with air, the pressure within the lungs rises until it matches the atmospheric pressure.
Bronchi vs. Bronchioles: What's the Difference?
At this point, more air can be inhaled by the contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, increasing the volume of the thorax and reducing the pressure of the lungs below that of the atmosphere again. To exhale air, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax while the internal intercostal muscles contract to reduce the volume of the thorax and increase the pressure within the thoracic cavity.
The pressure gradient is now reversed, resulting in the exhalation of air until the pressures inside the lungs and outside of the body are equal. At this point, the elastic nature of the lungs causes them to recoil back to their resting volume, restoring the negative pressure gradient present during inhalation. External Respiration External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air filling the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries surrounding the walls of the alveoli.
Air entering the lungs from the atmosphere has a higher partial pressure of oxygen and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide than does the blood in the capillaries. The difference in partial pressures causes the gases to diffuse passively along their pressure gradients from high to low pressure through the simple squamous epithelium lining of the alveoli.
The net result of external respiration is the movement of oxygen from the air into the blood and the movement of carbon dioxide from the blood into the air. Internal Respiration Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood in capillaries and the tissues of the body.
Capillary blood has a higher partial pressure of oxygen and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide than the tissues through which it passes. The difference in partial pressures leads to the diffusion of gases along their pressure gradients from high to low pressure through the endothelium lining of the capillaries. The net result of internal respiration is the diffusion of oxygen into the tissues and the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the blood.