Franco-Indian alliance - Wikipedia
This lesson examines the relationship between the French and the Native American tribes in the U.S. during the Fur Trade years and beyond. We'll. The Franco-Indian alliance was an alliance between American Indians and the French, centered on the Great Lakes and the Illinois country during the French. The relationship between French and Indigenous people of the coat commonly awarded to native trading captains during the fur trade. and brotherhood with the French and resistance to Anglo-American incursions.Native Americans and American Colonists (Story Time with Mr. Beat)
Father Jacques Marquette with Indians. Frontenac with the Indians. France had a long presence in Northern America, starting with the establishment of New France in Acculturation and conversion were promoted, especially through the activities of the Jesuit missions in North America.
Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country [New France], together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, and as such may come to live in France when they want, and acquire, donate, and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take no letters of declaration of naturalization.
Spanish civilization crushed the Indian; English civilization scorned and neglected him; French civilization embraced and cherished him — Francis Parkman.
- The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
- Relations Between the Indians and French
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The Baron de Saint-Castin was adopted by an Abenaki tribe and married a native girl. Governor Frontenac danced and sang war songs at an Indian council. Natives also adopted French habits, like chief Kondiaronk who wanted to be buried in his uniform of captain or Kateri Tekakwitha who became a Catholic Saint. Although the Innu did not remain long, some Abenaki refugees came to settle, and finally Wendat who escaped from the Haudenosaunee conquest of their territory.
Eventually there were reserves near each of the three French bridgeheads of settlement: The French sought to attract the Indigenous people close to their settlements with the view to having them adopt French agricultural sedentary life. The English, in New England for example, drove Indigenous people off their traditional lands into the hinterland in order to establish agricultural holdings and permanent settlement. Nevertheless, reserves in Canada were also relocated from time to time at ever greater distances from the principal towns, mostly because of the desire of the missionaries to stem illegal trade and isolate Indigenous converts from the temptations of alcohol, prostitution and gambling.
It was often on the reserves that canoemen, scouts and warriors were recruited for trade and war. It is possible that this political organization, whose membership evolved over the years, dates back to the early days of the French regime at the time when the first reserves were created in the St.
Beginning with European fishermen and sailors along the Atlantic seaboard, the practice spread into the hinterland as traders and interpreters, later unlicensed coureurs des boisand finally garrison troops came into contact with hinterland communities. Voyageurs and canoemen travelling to and from the upper country of Canada for the fur trade relied on Indigenous women to make and break camp, cook, carry baggage and serve as mistresses.
Canon law forbade the marriage of Catholics with pagans, so missionaries would often instruct and baptize adults and children in order to regularize such unions. InLouis XV forbade most mixed marriages; nevertheless, the rise of mixed communities in the Great Lakes basin, particularly along Lake Superiorindicated the prevalence of the practice. Responses were drafted to royal orders in the light of these deliberations, new directives were suggested and these were all sent to France by the last vessels in the autumn.
The Indigenous voice was an important element in this convoluted form of royal despotism. Another aspect of the dilution of absolutism was the avoidance of the imposition of the harsh aspects of French criminal law on Indigenous defendants.
As members of allied nations they would be tried by a military tribunal rather than a royal court.
These tribunals simply turned them over to their tribal councils to be dealt with according to their customary practices. It was an early form of parallel justice that promoted good community relations even in interracial cases.
Painting by Frances Ann Hopkins.
Champlainby supporting his Algonquian and Wendat trading partners inearned the long-lasting enmity of the Iroquois. The Meskwaki were viewed as hostile from until their dispersal in The Dakota also often attacked French trading partners and allies before agreeing to a general peace settlement in The escalation of tensions between the French and English over control of the fur trade in North America led to the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht in The Mi'kmaqand Passamaquoddy, considered themselves to be friends and allies and not subjects of the French Crown, as well as the rightful owners of the territory ceded to the British Crown.
The lack of consultation regarding the terms of the treaty, and the lack of compensation provided to the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy upset them greatly. France spent large sums of money for the annual distribution of the "King's presents" to allied nations.
In addition, the Crown issued clothing, weapons and ammunition to Indigenous auxiliaries, paid for their services, and maintained their families when the men were on active duty.
These warriors were judged invaluable for guiding, scouting and surprise raiding parties. Their war practices, including scalping and platform torture, were not interfered with as they generally fought alongside the French as independent auxiliaries.
In defeat, the French obtained favourable terms of capitulation, that their allies be treated as soldiers under arms, and that they "be maintained in the Lands they inhabit," enjoy freedom of religion and keep their missionaries. The treaty outlined a series of land exchanges in which France handed over their control of New France.
Under the terms of the treaty, Great Britain also gained control of Florida from the Spanish, who took control of New Orleans and the Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi River from the French. Of particular importance, the proclamation reserved a large tract of unceded territory, not including the lands reserved for the Hudson's Bay Companyeast of the Mississippi River as "hunting grounds" for Indigenous peoples.
As well, the proclamation established the requirements for the transfer of Indigenous title to the Crown, indicating that the Crown could only purchase Indigenous lands and that such purchases had to be unanimously approved by a council of Indigenous peoples.
The colonies were granted the ability to elect general assemblies under a royally appointed governor and high council, with the power to create laws and ordinances, as well as establish civil and criminal courts specific to the area and in agreement with British and colonial laws.
Slavery in New France Though settlers and Indigenous people worked, traded and lived together in New France, many settlers enslaved both Indigenous and African peoples as domestic servants.
The French and Native American Relations | Ancestral Findings
Two thirds of enslaved people were Indigenous, while the remainder were of African origin. Military officers, merchants and religious officials enslaved these people as domestic servants, rather than agricultural workers, as the economy was not plantation-based as it was in the American south.
In many Indigenous cultures, groups victorious in warfare often absorbed or took captive their defeated rivals. Often, they would exchange these captives for European goods.
Enslavement in New France was governed by the Code Noir ofand was formally ended with the Emancipation Act of