Canada and Brazil
The Evolving Relationship Between the State and Civil Society in Brazil public officials as well as their fellow CSO leaders in public policy-making processes. Diploma award ceremony for the 28 teenagers who completed the course on making LED lamps in a small farmers' association in Aparecida. I have personally met guys who had married Brazilian women that ran We just could not make the relationship work between two countries.
What explains why other CSOs provide expert policy advice through direct contact with public officials instead of starting a letter-writing campaign? Although this article focuses on seven Brazilian cities, we argue that our approach is sufficiently broad that our insights can be applied to patterns of political organizing across the region.
Our surveys focused on three distinct areas that served as dependent variables in our analysis: We also collected extensive information about the CSO and its local environment to test hypotheses across three different levels. First, at the macro level, we wanted to know whether CSOs in wealthy cities use different strategies than CSOs in poorer cities.
Wealthier cities have greater levels of public resources to spend on social service contracts, a broader middle class, and a more robust administrative structure to support the proliferation of participatory institutions. Third, at the meso level, we examined whether CSOs that hold a contract to deliver state services behave differently than those that do not.
This is a meso level factor because it implies that CSOs are a formally registered with the state, b have the skills and infrastructure to provide social services, and c have connections with political leaders to secure government contracts. It thus falls between the individual characteristics of CSO leadership at the micro level and city wealth at the macro level.
The survey data allowed us to create a series of statistical models to explain why certain CSOs are likely to pursue specific strategies. This in turn provides us with a window into the broader issue of how Brazilian state-society relations are being reconstituted based on three outcomes associated with democratization in the country: It is noteworthy that CSOs from the poorest communities engage in a wide range of political activities.
Surprisingly, they also appear to have a more diverse set of political strategies than CSOs from wealthier cities and those with wealthier leaders. We argue that the renewal of civil society, the creation of a new party system, and the establishment of new democratic institutions explain why relatively resource-poor organizations are now using a diverse set of strategies Heller ; Sandbrook et al.
Second, third-sector CSOs in relatively wealthy cities— whose leaders are relatively wealthy and hold government contracts to provide social services— are less engaged with participatory institutions, have limited formal contact with public officials, and avoid protest activities. These organizations meet the profile of third-sector associations, which typically provide social services through government contracts Bresser-Pereira and Spink ; Bresser-Pereira and Grau ; Lavalle, Acharya, and Houtzager Third-sector CSOs tend to be nonpartisan but often leverage their professional and technical know-how to shape and implement public policies.
We anticipate the leaders of these organizations will be able to use preexisting networks e. Direct involvement in new democratic institutions does not alter the probability of direct action protests and contentious activities. CSOs in poorer communities are not necessarily abandoning clientelism or contentious politics, but they are moving beyond a narrow set of choices in order to pursue their interests.
Although the state has expanded and engages with the poor in some areas, the poor continue to seek the state out to make their voice heard and gain voting power at the same time.
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When the national team plays, the country is one. This came largely from the patriarchy of the Catholic Church whereby men were encouraged to exercise their strength and virility and women to be submissive to them. Whilst that attitude has been the tradition throughout the centuries, changes have been taking place over the past few decades.
The distinction between gender roles in Brazil today still tends to be dictated by class, race and geography. Women residing in the urbanised areas are more predisposed to higher occupational and educational options. Although men have historically taken the higher professional roles and women have been deemed to be responsible for the domestic affairs, those concepts are changing.
However, in the poorer areas, women tend to be more disadvantaged with little access to education or career options and work mostly in low paid, low skilled industries. Afro Brazilian women are particularly marginalised and many work in domestic occupations such as maids or as sex workers. This has led to the growth of the Afro-Brazilian Feminist movement who have been fighting for Racial and Gender inclusion for more than forty years.
As one of the largest countries in the world, child rearing in Brazil is very much dependent upon class, cultural and racial diversity and socio-economic differences throughout the country. Educational opportunities and social development tend to be concentrated in the urbanised areas which are primarily situated in the south east of the country. The aspects of socialisation, therefore, vary considerably between groups. Although some cultural exchanges exist much depends upon ethnicity.
Although education in Brazil is compulsory between the ages of 6 years and 14 years, funding resources tend to be concentrated in the urban areas and many groups are disadvantaged socially and economically so have little access to further education.
Due to centuries of immigration, Brazilian cuisine varies throughout the regions and encompasses influences from Africa, Asia, Middle East, Italian, Spanish, Amerindian, China and Japan. Rice and beans are diet staples, coupled with spices, meat, fresh fruit, vegetables and fish.
It is a black bean stew containing pork meat and eaten with rice. Street markets Feira are a popular feature in all areas of Brazil.
New Relationship Evolves Between Society and Energy in Brazil | Inter Press Service
They offer a wide selection of foods including the popular and versatile Pastel which is a pastry crust containing various fillings, either sweet or savoury and deep fried. The ingredients can vary from minced chicken, shrimps, cheese to soft fruits, banana or chocolate.
Coxinha, which is popular in the markets, contains minced chicken, wrapped in a dough and moulded into the shape of a chicken leg before being deep fried. Kibeh is another deep-fried snack dish with middle eastern influences containing beef, garlic, onions, cinnamon and mint mixed with bulgur wheat.
Other favourite dishes include Gaucho Rodizio which is grilled meat on skewers and Moqueca de Peixe, a fish stew with onions, tomatoes, garlic, coriander cooked in coconut milk. Brazil has been experiencing a severe financial crisis since much of which has been associated with the political scandal that led to the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff, the President, in Despite stringent measures introduced by Michel Temer, the new President, recovery is slow.
Brazil has a historically rich tapestry of folk traditions, music, dance, art and literature emanating from the varied mix of cultures introduced over centuries. Brazilians are renowned for their love of dance and music with regular festivals taking place; the most famous being the Brazil festival held in Rio de Janeiro each year with revelry taking place over a period of five days. Brazil is also known for those beloved of dances that appeal to all ages, the bossa nova and the samba.
Euclides da Cunha —a journalist known for his works relating to the political turmoil in the country. Jorge Amado — is one of the most well-loved authors of Brazil, known for his sense of humour. Albano Alfonso — born who works with an eclectic mix of materials through photography, painting and film. Brazil has also produced many musicians both classical, jazz and Latin dance.
Chico Buarque, achieved hit records in the s with songs that included political messages directed again the military dictatorship at the time. Tim Maia became popular in the s when he brought Soul into the mix of Brazilian music. Men shake hands when greeting one another, while maintaining steady eye contact.
Women generally kiss each other, starting with the left and alternating cheeks.
New Relationship Evolves Between Society and Energy in Brazil
Hugging and backslapping are common greetings among Brazilian friends. If a woman wishes to shake hands with a man, she should extend her hand first. Brazilian people are open and friendly. They often use hand gestures in communication and are not put off by touch.
It is not uncommon for women and children to link arms when walking and men may use both hands to shake hands to add warmth and sincerity to their greeting.
Personal space too is not the taboo it is in some countries and Brazilian people tend not to be uncomfortable when in close proximity with others. If invited to a Brazilian's house, bring the hostess flowers or a small gift. Orchids are considered a very nice gift, but avoid purple ones. Avoid giving anything purple or black as these are mourning colours.
Since handkerchiefs are associated with funerals they do not make good gifts. Gifts are opened when received. It is not unusual to be casual about timing so being late for dinner or a party is not frowned upon, however, avoid being more than half an hour late for dinner or more than an hour for a party. Brazilians dress with flair and judge others on their appearance.
Casual dress is more formal than in many other countries. Always dress elegantly and err on the side of over-dressing rather than under- dressing. If you did not bring a gift to the hostess, flowers the next day are always appreciated. Eat with the knife in the right hand and fork in the left. After eating, place the knife and fork next to one another and do not cross them. In formal dinners remember that the eating utensils start from the outside in.
The spoon and fork at the top of your plate are for the dessert. There will be separate glasses for drinking, red wine or white wine and beer. Do not place hands out of sight and keep wrists but not elbows on the table. Do not eat food with your hands - including fruit.
Items such as fruit should be cut with a knife and fork. Food should always be passed to the left. The most honoured guest sits at the head of the table and hosts to sit either side. If invited to a restaurant it is normally the person who offers the invitation who pays although it is important to make an offer to pay.
Brazilians often like to spend some time over a meal so expect to not rush off. Although the Brazilians are typically tolerant people bear in mind that it is a Catholic country and raising religion in conversation particularly if expressing any strong atheistic views is a definite no-no.
Having suffered some years of economic depression, Brazil is fast becoming a country that has an up and coming aspirational youth who are keen to develop business investment and strong commercial relationships. Successful business dealings in Brazil depends very much upon having a keen perception of the commercial culture of the country.
Brazilians prefer face-to-face meetings to written communication as it allows them to know the person with whom they are doing business. The individual they deal with is more important than the company. Be courteous and do not openly criticise particularly in a group situation as this will cause offence. Communication is often informal and does not rely on strict rules of protocol. Anyone in the meeting can comfortably contribute to discussions.