cognitive appraisal component of the stress model that emphasizes on the possibility theoretical position based on overload of information from the environment between other variables such as arousal mediating the relationship between. secondary cognitive appraisal mediates the relation between in the study of the relationship between stress and strain makes theoretical and. process that is mediated by both primary, and secondary appraisal (Lazarus & .. The Relationship between Cognitive Appraisals and Coping Strategies .. 31 Cognitive appraisal of stress theory is a popular approach in the studies.
Materials and Methods Participants A total of participants females took part in the experiment online, with a mean age of The most common nationalities listed by participants were American The sample size was informed by rules of thumb for determining the number of cases necessary for regression analyses. First, a sample size of participants would be required to detect a medium effect size between affiliative or agentic extraversion and affect in a model with three predictor variables Tabachnick and Fidell, Secondly, a sample size of participants would be necessary to detect a mediation effect where the effect sizes between the independent, dependent and mediating variables are approximately halfway between small and medium effects Fritz and MacKinnon, Emotion Induction Vignettes Participants were presented with two vignettes.
The vignette to induce warmth-affection reflected the content of the film developed by Morrone-Strupinsky and Depue Participants were asked to imagine themselves participating in an affectionate exchange with a romantic partner and newborn child.
This vignette has previously been demonstrated to be effective in inducing positive activation in studies of affective reactivity Smillie et al. Each scale is made up of ten items each, and each item is rated on a five point Likert scale.
Moreover, these scales have been used as measures of affiliative and agentic extraversion in previous studies of affective reactivity Smillie et al. Given the lack of previous research on how the agentic and affiliative components of extraversion might relate to appraisals, we sought to sample a comprehensive set of appraisal dimensions.
Twelve appraisal dimensions were identified, each of which was measured with between 1—3 items. The items were adapted from measures previously developed by the researchers noted above, and the phrasing of these were altered slightly to reflect either the family or lottery conditions.
Participants rated each item on a scale from 1 not at all to 5 completely. Reliabilities and examples of the items included in each measure are displayed in Table 1.
The full scales are provided in Supplementary Material 1. Reliabilities and example items of the appraisal scales. We assessed this new multi-dimensional model of appraisals using a confirmatory factor analysis. All latent variables were allowed to co-vary.
In addition, the single-item used to assess Intrinsic Pleasantness was included in the model by allowing it to co-vary with each of the 11 latent variables. Taken together, these results indicate that the measurement model for appraisals was appropriate. Warmth-affection was measured with Diener et al.
Procedure The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of School of Psychological Sciences and Health at University of Strathclyde, and all participants provided written informed consent. The study was conducted online, and was advertised on social media and websites dedicated to recruiting participants for online psychology experiments.
The experiment was displayed through Qualtrics 1. Participants first completed the BFAS scales, followed by the affect questionnaires. Participants were then presented with one of the vignettes and were instructed to imagine themselves experiencing the situation as vividly as possible. These instructions remained onscreen for 90 s, after which participants completed the affect questionnaires for a second time, and then completed the appraisal questionnaire to rate how they had appraised the previously imagined situation.
Participants then completed the affect questionnaires again in order to record a new baseline measure, before the process was repeated with the second imagery vignette. The order in which each imagery condition was presented was counterbalanced between participants.
Results The first set of analyses tested whether the lottery and family vignettes induced states of positive activation and warmth-affection. Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 2.
Means SD of affect scores pre and post the family and lottery conditions. Several affect scores were not normally distributed. Square root transformations improved the distribution of most variables, and these transformed data were used in the subsequent manipulation checks. Transformations did not improve the distribution of warmth-affection scores following the affiliative imagery however, and so these data were analyzed with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Testing the Relationships Between Personality, Affect and Appraisals Following the Affiliative Family Imagery The next set of analyses tested whether personality traits predicted affect following the affiliative imagery, and whether these relationships were mediated by appraisals.
Descriptive statistics are reported in Table 3. Descriptive statistics and correlations between personality, affect and appraisals in the family imagery condition. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to test whether Enthusiasm or Assertiveness predicted affect following the affiliative imagery task.
- Login using
In the first model, post-imagery warmth-affection scores were regressed on baseline warmth-affection scores in the first step, followed by Enthusiasm and Assertiveness in the second step. In the second model, post-imagery positive activation scores were regressed on baseline positive activation scores in the first step, followed by Enthusiasm and Assertiveness scores in the second. Further regression analyses were then conducted in order to identify which appraisals were predicted by Enthusiasm, and should therefore be included in the subsequent mediation analyses.
Assertiveness was included as a covariate in each analysis and as these analyses were exploratory, no corrections were made for multiple tests Streiner and Norman, The PROCESS macro provided by Hayes was used to test whether the four identified appraisals mediated the relationships between Enthusiasm and warmth-affection or positive activation.
The first analysis tested whether these appraisals mediated the relationship between Enthusiasm and warmth-affection following the family imagery, while controlling for baseline warmth-affection and Assertiveness. The results of are presented in Figure 1 and Table 4. Mediation model of affiliative extraversion and warmth-affection through appraisals.
All coefficients represent unstandardized standardized regression coefficients, controlling for Assertiveness and baseline warmth-affection scores. The indirect effects of intrinsic pleasantness and compatibility with internal standards were significant, and these appraisals therefore mediated the relationship between Enthusiasm and warmth-affection.
Cognitive Appraisals, Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients
The completely standardized indirect effect of intrinsic pleasantness was 0. The completely standardized indirect effect of compatibility with internal standards was 0. The next analysis tested whether appraisals mediated the relationship between Enthusiasm and positive activation.
The results are presented in Figure 2 and Table 5. Mediation model of affiliative extraversion and positive activation through appraisals. All coefficients represent unstandardized standardized regression coefficients, controlling for Assertiveness and baseline positive activation scores.
The indirect effect of importance was significant, and this appraisal therefore mediated the relationship between Enthusiasm and positive activation.
Cognitive Appraisals, Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients
The completely standardized indirect effect was 0. Testing the Relationships Between Personality, Affect and Appraisals Following the Appetitive Lottery Imagery The next set of analyses tested whether affiliative or agentic extraversion predicted affect following the lottery imagery.
The descriptive statistics are presented in Table 6. Descriptive statistics and correlations between personality, affect and appraisals in the lottery imagery condition. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to test whether Assertiveness or Enthusiasm predicted affect following the lottery imagery. In the first model, post-imagery positive activation scores were regressed on baseline positive activation scores in the first step, followed by Assertiveness and Enthusiasm scores in the second.
In the second model, post-imagery warmth-affection scores were regressed on baseline warmth-affection scores in the first step, followed by Assertiveness and Enthusiasm in the second step. Discussion The aims of this study were to test affective reactivity in affiliative and agentic extraversion, and to test whether cognitive appraisals account for these individual differences.
Affiliative — but not agentic - extraversion predicted feelings of warmth-affection and positive activation following an affiliative imagery task. The relationship between affiliative extraversion and warmth-affection was mediated by appraisals of intrinsic pleasantness and compatibility with internal standards, whilst the relationship between affiliative extraversion and positive activation was mediated by appraisals of importance.
Neither appetitive nor affiliative extraversion predicted positive activation in response to an appetitive imagery task. Examining the Relationships Between Personality and Affect Affiliative extraversion predicted both warmth-affection and positive activation in response to an affiliative stimulus, while simultaneously controlling for baseline affect and agentic extraversion.
Previous researchers have reported a similar relationship between affiliative extraversion and warmth-affection Morrone-Strupinsky and Depue,but evidence for the relationship between affiliative extraversion and positive activation has been mixed.
One key difference between studies reporting an association between affiliative extraversion and positive activation and those that have not is the personality measure used. Morrone-Strupinsky and Depuefor example, measured affiliative extraversion with the MPQ Social Closeness scale, whilst the current study and Smillie et al. The BFAS combines items that assess affiliation e. Measures of affiliative extraversion that include items pertaining to positive affectivity may be more strongly related to positive activation than those that do not.
In future research it would therefore be advantageous to include multiple measures of affiliative extraversion to test how these scales differ in their predictive power. Contrary to our predictions, agentic extraversion did not predict positive activation in response to an appetitive stimulus.
This may in part be due to the content of the stimulus that we employed, and the instruction to participants to imagine themselves winning a lottery. Previous investigators have demonstrated that this vignette is effective in inducing positive activation, and that the intensity of positive activation reported by participants is associated with trait extraversion Smillie et al.
Our results demonstrate that the intensity of positive activation after this vignette is not associated with agentic extraversion, that that may be because the vignette does not emphasize the goal-striving and approach behaviors that are characteristic of agentic extraversion.
Winning a lottery may be more associated with perceptions of luck than with self-agency. This interpretation is consistent with the fact that while Assertiveness correlated with self-agency appraisals — but not situational or other-agency — only appraisals of situational agency were associated with positive activation following the appetitive scenario. Appetitive stimuli that describe goal-directed behavior leading to goal attainment in greater detail may produce states of positive activation that are more reliably associated with agentic extraversion Smillie et al.
Appraisals as Mediators of the Relationships Between Personality and Affect The results of this study support the view that appraisals can account for at least some individual differences in affective experience Kuppens and Tong,and therefore indicate a potential psychological mechanism underlying personality differences in responsiveness to affiliative stimuli. These cognitive-affective units also influence appraisals Shoda and Smith,and so the appraisals identified in this study may also provide some insight into the social-cognitive elements that are central to trait affiliative extraversion.
It was predicted that individual differences in warmth-affection would be mediated by appraisals of intrinsic pleasantness, other agency, importance and effort, however only appraisals of intrinsic pleasantness and compatibility with internal standards were found to mediate the relationship between affiliative extraversion and warmth-affection.
These findings enhance the prediction of depression among breast cancer patients and suggest the need to examine cognitive appraisals when attempting to understand depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms in this population are disturbing because preoperative depression in late-stage breast cancer patients and post-operative depression in early-stage patients have been found predict mortality Hjerl et al,and research has revealed a correlation between psychosocial variables and quality of life in this population Cousson-Gelie, Transactional Theory of Stress: Depression as an Outcome of Appraisals and Coping.
Appraisal is a process whereby individuals decide whether stressful situations are threats to their well-being or not primary appraisalsand determine whether they have the resources to deal with the stressor if it is viewed as a threat secondary appraisals.
Primary appraisals are typically categorized as one of four subtypes, based on their effect on well-being. Benign appraisals are made when individuals believe the situation poses no threat to their wellbeing. Finally, challenge appraisals are made when individuals see the stressful situation as an opportunity for growth or development.
Breast cancer typically elicits appraisals of threat Gallagher et al. Challenge appraisals are also possible when the patient interprets the cancer as an obstacle to overcome. Appraisals matter because of their relationship to depression.