Borders of the oceans - Wikipedia
The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean and fills the gap between Asia, Australia, North and South America and the Oceania. It meets the Atlantic. Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse: Where two oceans meet at the time Western Australia's major port, and the then premier, Sir John Forrest, in awe at the power of the sea, where the Indian and Great Southern oceans converge. Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse: Where the Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean meet, reviews, candid photos, and great deals for Augusta, Australia, at TripAdvisor. South Pacific · Australia · Western Australia · Margaret River Region.
For Australia, it captures a number of ideas. Second, the Indo-Pacific is a maritime concept, and captures our sense that the big strategic issues going forward will be maritime. Continued economic prosperity in Asia therefore relies on maritime stability and keeping open sea lanes which are vital for trade.
Australia and India each have strong interests in the region. Australia is a significant Indo-Pacific power in our own right. Australian supplies of energy and resources have fuelled the growth of countries in the region — China, Japan and Korea among them.
It includes our strategic ally the United States, and our largest trading partner, China. Of the 26 million people in the Indian diaspora around the world, more than half live in the Indo-Pacific. This rises to over 22 million if you include the broader Indian Ocean region, including the Gulf and South Africa. Managing Change in the Indo-Pacific While we are seeing a shift of economic and strategic weight to the Indo-Pacific, it is also fair to say that we are witnessing shifts in power relativities within the Indo-Pacific region.
India is also another part of the Indo-Pacific equation. India is currently the fastest growing big economy in the world, with an annual GDP growth rate above seven per cent.
Other relativities in the region are also changing. According to The Economist magazine, by Indonesia is predicted to leap from the 16th largest economy today into the top 10 economies; Vietnam may be one of the fastest growing large economies; Over the same period Japan, South Korea, and unfortunately Australia too, are forecast to fall in relative GDP rankings. Economic strength translates into strategic weight over time.
As we see in the case of China, a large economy will inevitably want to exercise commensurate strategic influence. And it will have every right to do so.
But the point here is that the story of the Indo-Pacific is not of one or two countries rising in power in an otherwise static environment. Rather, we are facing an extended period — some decades at least — where economic and strategic power relativities will be in constant change.
Pacific Ocean | Description, Location, Map, & Facts | south-park-episodes.info
We do not know when, or indeed if, the shifts we see in the Indo-Pacific will reach a settling point. Nor can we expect the trajectory along the way to be smooth. India will not be immune to challenges. And India will need to sustain economic reforms, continue to streamline regulations and keep pursuing economic liberalisation to attain its full potential.
Despite rumblings among commentators about its decline, it is very likely that US primacy in the region will continue.
The United States is still predicted to be a top three economy by Its military, and particularly its navy, maintains a technological edge. And its immense soft power — its promotion of democracy, rule of law and individual freedoms and human rights — will prevail into the future.
The Indo-Pacific region is also affected by other global pressures and challenges. Climate change is bringing significant impacts as sea levels rise and weather patterns change, affecting agriculture, industry and critical infrastructure.
Policies to address climate change, for example expanding renewable energy sources, will also drive changes in the structure of economies in the Indo-Pacific. The pace of technological change and the internet have political and social effects, as well as economic ones.
News just travels faster. World leaders communicate by mobile phone and text message. Information is more fragmented. People are less likely to be influenced by large institutions, the government or the mainstream media, and political outcomes are less predictable.
The threat of terrorism is pervasive, unpredictable and highly adaptive. Curbing and fighting terrorism now preoccupies every government and absorbs tremendous resources. Sadly, our region is far from immune. This century has seen India, the United States and Indonesia face terrorist attack on their soil. The global economic slowdown since has driven some countries to look inward.
There is less support for open trade and economic cooperation than before. Economic insularity is a recipe for individual and global economic weakness.
It also reduces incentives for countries to work cooperatively and may raise the risk of conflicts. And social changes brought about by development and globalisation — rising education levels, the expanding role of women and the growth of the middle class — will also place pressures on the domestic politics of countries in our region.
We face trends we can identify but only dimly project. We can never know the end point — challenging us to think creatively about how we manage change. Traditional models try to reach for a way to achieve a new status quo. But as I have already pointed out, we may be decades away from a settling point.
So it may be more useful to consider what kind of order will best meet our needs in the meantime.
In a practical sense, we need to do three things: Peacefully manage change to minimise the risk of conflict over time Address transnational as well as regional threats effectively; and Protect our shared values, notably the rule of law, a liberal economic order and open societies. We need institutions and habits of dialogue and cooperation that can deliver to these objectives. Given the pace of change, we should place a premium on speed, agility and flexibility.
The importance of dialogue is often underrated. There is a tendency to see it as the soft end of strategic policy. But history shows that it can be the most effective way to build understanding, avoid miscalculation and resolve differences while they are still small.
The network of bilateral and trilateral dialogues which are developing in the region are well suited to this task. This is not to discount the importance of established global and regional institutions. The nodules so formed contain manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, and traces of other metals such as platinum.
- Where the Indian Ocean and Southern... - Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse
- High Commissioner's Address at IPCS - Australia, India and the Indo-Pacific order
- Borders of the oceans
They cover large areas of the ocean floor in the Pacific. Similar processes form coatings, called manganese crusts, on the rock surfaces of seamounts. Among the many different forms of land-derived muds formed by the erosive action of rivers, tides, and currents that floor the continental shelves and slopes of the Pacific, the yellow mud of the Yellow Sea is of particular interest. The mud is conveyed to the seabed by the Huang He, which drains a vast area of northern China blanketed with loessa fine-grained soil.
082 Stand where the Southern and Indian Oceans collide
Geologically, they consist partly of sedimentary rocksand their structures are similar to those of the coastal mountain ranges of the adjacent continent. In the northern and western Pacific the Andesite Line follows close to seaward the trend of the island arcs from the Aleutians southward to the Yap and Palau arcs, thence eastward through the Bismarck, Solomon, and Santa Cruz archipelagoes, and thence southward through the Samoa, Tonga, and Chatham groups and Macquarie Island to Antarctica.
Islands to the west of the line are rich in andesitea type of intrusive igneous rock; islands to the east oceanic side of it are essentially of basaltan extrusive igneous rock. The numerous oceanic islands of the Pacific are unevenly distributed.
They lie, in the main, between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and occur in great numbers in the western Pacific. The northernmost chain of oceanic islands is associated with the Hawaiian Ridge. The Hawaiian archipelago consists of about 2, islands, although the term Hawaiian Islands is usually applied to the small group that lies at the eastern end of the archipelago. To the south of Micronesia lies Melanesiawhich consists mostly of small coral islands.
Geology Evidence drawn from various geophysical fields— seismologyvolcanologygravimetry, and paleomagnetism remanent magnetism —points to the general validity of the theory of plate tectonics. All the major physical features in the Pacific are understood to originate in plate tectonics. The western Pacific arcs of volcanic islands and deep trenches are convergent zones where two plates are colliding, one being subducted forced under the other.
The East Pacific Rise is an active spreading centre where new crust is being created. The northeastern Pacific margin is the strike-slip zone where the American Plate and the Pacific Plate are gliding laterally past each other via the major San Andreas Fault system.
The floor of the northeastern Pacific is remarkable for its several major fracture zoneswhich extend east and west and which, in some instances, are identifiable over distances of thousands of miles. Of great geologic interest are the seamounts submerged volcanoesguyots flat-topped seamountsand oceanic islands of the Pacific.
Where Southern Ocean and Indian Ocean Meet - Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse
The numerous tropical islands of the Pacific are mainly coralline. The principal types of coral reefs — fringingbarrierand atoll —as well as the guyots, which rise within the Pacific from the ocean floor in latitudes north and south of the tropics, are explained partially by the slow subsidence theory advanced by the English naturalist Charles Darwin during the 19th century and partially by the theory of plate tectonics.
Climate The wind and pressure systems of the Pacific conform closely to the planetary system—the patterns of air pressure and the consequent wind patterns that develop in the atmosphere of the Earth as a result of its rotation Coriolis force and the inclination of its axis ecliptic toward the Sun. They are, in essence, a three-celled latitudinal arrangement of the atmospheric circulationwith the systems in the Northern and Southern hemispheres mirroring each other on opposite sides of the Equator.
The vast extent of open water in the Pacific influences wind and pressure patterns over it, and climatic conditions in the southern and eastern Pacific—where the steadiness of the trade winds and the westerlies is remarkable—are the most uniform on the globe. In the North Pacific, however, conditions are not so uniform, particularly the considerable climatic differences between the eastern and western regions in the same latitude. The rigour of the winters off the east coast of Russiafor instance, contrasts sharply with the relative mildness of winters in the region of British Columbia.
The obliquity of the ecliptic an angle of The easterly winds between the two subtropical zones form the intertropical airflow and tend to be strongest in the eastern Pacific. The equatorial region, where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern hemispheres converge, is an area of calms or light variable breezes and is known as the doldrums.
The average wind speed of the Pacific trade winds is about 15 miles 24 km per hour. The weather in the trade-wind belts is normally fine, with relatively little cloud cover; such clouds as there are characteristically take the form of broken cumulus small piles of clouds with flat bases at about 2, feet metres above sea level.
Precipitation, usually in the form of light showers, is slight. Off the west coasts of the American continents in the trade-wind belts, upwelling of cold subsurface water causes the overlying air to be cooled below its dew point the air temperature below which water vapour condenses as dewwith the consequent widespread formation of low, thick clouds.
Amazing: A place where two oceans meet but do not mix | News - Times of India Videos
Fog in those regions is not uncommon. Tropical storms Although in general the climatic conditions of the trade-wind belts are characteristically regular and uniform, storms of great violence do originate there. In such storms, winds of exceptionally strong force spiral inward toward a centre of exceedingly low atmospheric pressure. The regions to the east of the Philippines and in the South and East China seas are notorious for these storms, which imperil shipping and often cause severe coastal flooding accompanied by loss of life and property.
NOAA The westerlies Within the belts of the westerly winds, cold easterly winds from polar regions meet the warm westerly winds of the middle latitudes, causing the formation of the traveling depressions characteristic of middle latitudes. The zone of convergence, or polar frontis most strongly developed in winter, when the contrast in temperature and humidity of the air between the converging flows is greatest.