Saladin - HISTORY
Saladin (/–) was a Muslim military and political leader who unable to defeat the armies led by England's King Richard I (the Lionheart), However, he was able to negotiate a truce with Richard I that allowed. Richard I, byname Richard the Lionheart or Lionhearted, French Richard . a truce for three years with Saladin that permitted the Crusaders to. In tales like those of Robin Hood, King Richard the Lionheart is remembered charitably as a benevolent erstwhile monarch, lost to the.
Once back at his fortress of FamagustaIsaac broke his oath of hospitality and began issuing orders for Richard to leave the island. Isaac's arrogance prompted Richard to conquer the island within days, finally leaving on 5 June Guy attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyrebut Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defence of the city from Muslim attacks.
Richard I of England - Wikipedia
Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. He amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly arrived French army.
The combined armies were not enough to counter Saladin, however, whose forces besieged the besiegers. In summerin one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavoured to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella.
After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of ToronIsabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name.
Richard the Lionheart Makes Peace with Saladin ()
During the winter of —91, there were further outbreaks of dysentery and fever, which claimed the lives of Frederick of Swabia, Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalemand Theobald V of Blois. When the sailing season began again in springLeopold V of Austria arrived and took command of what remained of the imperial forces. Philip of France arrived with his troops from Sicily in May. Richard, Philip, and Leopold quarrelled over the spoils of the victory.
Richard cast down the German standard from the city, slighting Leopold. In the struggle for the kingship of Jerusalem, Richard supported Guy, while Philip and Leopold supported Conrad, who was related to them both. It was decided that Guy would continue to rule but that Conrad would receive the crown upon his death.
Philip left 7, French crusaders and 5, silver marks to pay them. Saladin refused, saying that it was customary for kings to meet each other only after a peace treaty had been agreed, and thereafter "it is not seemly for them to make war upon each other".
The two therefore never met, although they did exchange gifts and Richard had a number of meetings with Al-AdilSaladin's brother. On 20 August, however, Richard thought Saladin had delayed too much and had 2, of the Muslim prisoners decapitated in full view of Saladin's army, which tried unsuccessfully to rescue them.
Battle of Arsuf[ edit ] Full article: Control of Jaffa was necessary before an attack on Jerusalem could be attempted. Saladin attempted to harass Richard's army into breaking its formation in order to defeat it in detail.
Richard maintained his army's defensive formation, however, until the Hospitallers broke ranks to charge the right wing of Saladin's forces. Richard then ordered a general counterattack, which won the battle. Arsuf was an important victory.
The Muslim army was not destroyed, despite losing 7,  men, but it did rout; this was considered shameful by the Muslims and boosted the morale of the Crusaders. Arsuf had dented Saladin's reputation as an invincible warrior and proved Richard's courage as soldier and his skill as a commander.
Richard was able to take, defend, and hold Jaffa, a strategically crucial move toward securing Jerusalem. By depriving Saladin of the coast, Richard seriously threatened his hold on Jerusalem. He offered to begin negotiations with Saladin, who sent his brother, Al-Adil known as 'Saphadin' to the Franksto meet with Richard.
Negotiations, which included an attempt to marry Richard's sister Joan to Al-Adil, failed, and Richard marched to Ascalonwhich had been recently demolished by Saladin. On 12 December Saladin was forced by pressure from his emirs to disband the greater part of his army.
Learning this, Richard pushed his army forward, spending Christmas at Latrun. The army then marched to Beit Nuba, only 12 miles from Jerusalem. Muslim morale in Jerusalem was so low that the arrival of the Crusaders would probably have caused the city to fall quickly. Appallingly bad weather, cold with heavy rain and hailstorms, combined with fear that if the Crusader army besieged Jerusalem, it might be trapped by a relieving force, led to the decision to retreat back to the coast.
He too had been negotiating with Saladin as a defence against any attempt by Richard to wrest Tyre from him for Guy. However, in April, Richard was forced to accept Conrad as king of Jerusalem after an election by the nobles of the kingdom. Guy had received no votes at all; Richard sold him Cyprus as compensation. Before he could be crowned, Conrad was stabbed to death by two Hashshashin in the streets of Tyre. It was strongly suspected that the king's killers had acted on instructions from Richard.
During the winter months, Richard's men occupied and refortified Ascalon, whose fortifications had earlier been razed by Saladin. The spring of saw continued negotiations and further skirmishing between the opposing forces. On 22 May the strategically important fortified town of Darum on the frontiers of Egypt fell to the crusaders, following five days of fierce fighting.
In particular, Richard and the majority of the army council wanted to force Saladin to relinquish Jerusalem by attacking the basis of his power through an invasion of Egypt. Thereafter Richard was occupied with suppressing baronial revolts in his own duchy.
Richard was now heir to England and to Normandy and Anjou which were regarded as inseparableand his father wished him to yield Aquitaine to his youngest brother, John.
But Richard, a true southerner, would not surrender the duchy in which he had grown up, and even appealed, against Henry II, to the young king of FrancePhilip II. In November he did homage to Philip for all the English holdings on French soil and in openly joined forces with Philip to drive Henry into abject submission. They chased him from Le Mans to Saumurforced him to acknowledge Richard as his heir, and at last harried him to his death July 6, He had no conception of planning for the future of the English monarchy and put up everything for sale to buy arms for the Crusade.
Yet he had not become king to preside over the dismemberment of the Angevin empire. He broke with Philip and did not neglect Angevin defenses on the Continent. With all this he raised a formidable fleet and an army, and in he departed for the Holy Land, traveling via Sicily. Richard ICoronation procession of Richard I in Richard joined the other Crusaders at Acre on June 8,having conquered Cyprus on his way there. The spring of saw continued negotiations and further skirmishing between the opposing forces.
During this period Richard began to receive disturbing news of the activities of his brother John and of Philip Augustus, and as the spring gave way to summer it became evident that Richard must soon return to Europe to safeguard his own interests there. Saladin several times attacked Jaffa and once was on the point of taking the city during Richard's absence; the plan, however, was foiled by Richard's unexpected return. During the summer Richard fell ill and this, added to the news of the rapidly deteriorating situation in Europe, brought him finally to accept Saladin's peace terms.
On this expedition three great armies had toiled to conquer Jerusalem and the whole of Palestine for the West. But, inJerusalem was still in Saladin's hands and the deliverance of the East from the Moslems was still a pious hope. The positive achievement of this Crusade was modest: The major task of the Crusade, however, was left undone.
As his illness became very grave, the King despaired of recovering his health.