Sport of athletics - Wikipedia
With it being a necessary part of some sports such as motorsportit is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making.
Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear.
Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology.
For example, infull-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINAas they were enhancing swimmers' performances. In some sports, players can now challenge decisions made by officials. In Association footballgoal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not.
The final decision rests with the referee. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The majority of these reported research with young people based in community settings.
Weight management, social interaction and enjoyment were common reasons for participation in sport and physical activity. Concerns about maintaining a slim body shape motivated participation among young girls. Older people identified the importance of sport and physical activity in staving off the effects of aging and providing a social support network.
Challenges to identity such as having to show others an unfit body, lacking confidence and competence in core skills or appearing overly masculine were barriers to participation.
Introduction It is generally accepted that physical activity confers benefits to psychosocial health, functional ability and general quality of life [ 1 ] and has been proven to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease [ 2 ] and some cancers [ 3 ]. Conditions associated with physical inactivity include obesity, hypertension, diabetes, back pain, poor joint mobility and psychosocial problems [ 5—7 ].
Physical inactivity is a major public health challenge in the developed world and is recognized as a global epidemic [ 8 ].
The Health Survey for England HSE [ 13 ] found that the number of physically inactive people less than one occasion of min activity per week was increasing and that this trend was consistent for both genders and across all age groups [ 14 ]. Conventionally, sport and forms of physical activity such as aerobics, running or gym work have been the focus of efforts to increase population activity levels.
The HSE measure includes activities, such as gardening and housework, which are not traditionally considered as physical activity.
Sport England found that in the year period between and participation in traditional types of sport and physical activity stagnated or fell in all groups other than the to year old age group.
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This trend was socially patterned by gender, socio-economic status, social class and ethnicity [ 15 ]. There are many broad influences upon physical activity behavior including intra-personal, social, environmental factors and these determinants vary across the life course [ 4 ].
Ambitious national targets and increased funding of community sport and physical activity projects such as the Sports Hub in Regent's Park, London [ 16 ] show that sport and physical activity is gaining social, political and health policy importance. At a more basic level, many forms of athletics demand very little in terms of venue requirements; almost any open space or area of field can provide a suitable venue for basic running, jumping and throwing competitions.
Track and field stadium[ edit ] A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium A standard outdoor track is in the shape of a stadium metres in length, and has at least eight lanes 1. Older track facilities may have nonstandard track lengths, such as yards Historically, tracks were covered by a dirt running surface.
Sport of athletics
Modern All-weather running tracks are covered by a synthetic weather-resistant running surface, which typically consists of rubber either black SBR or colored EPDM granulesbound by polyurethane or latex resins.
Older tracks may be cinder -covered. A standard indoor track is designed similarly to an outdoor track, but is only metres in length and has between four and eight lanes, each with width between 0.
However, because of space limitations, indoor tracks may have other nonstandard lengths, such as yard Because of space limitations, meetings held at indoor facilities do not hold many of athletics events typically contested outdoors. Cross country courses[ edit ] A cross country race taking place at a snowy park in the United States.
There is no standardised form of cross country course and each venue is significantly defined by the environment it contains — some may be relatively flat and featureless, while others may be more challenging with natural obstacles, tight turns, and undulating ground.
While a small number of purpose-built courses exist, the vast majority of cross country running courses are created by cordoning a specific area within any open natural land, typically a parkwoodland or greenspace near a settlement. Severe obstacles such as deep ditches, high barriers and thick undergrowth not normally present; the course should be able to be completed whilst remaining on foot throughout.
In order to maintain the sport's distinction from road running, the usage of unnatural or macadamised surfaces is generally kept to a minimum or avoided entirely.