The Temperaments and the Adult-Child Relationship - Kristie Burns - Google Livres
Observing Child and Family Interactions and Relationships . adult and child similarities and differences in temperament traits may affect. "goodness of fit" and . As parents grow to know their children they accommodate the different . secure in trusting the adult to always respond to him and provide necessary bonding. The Temperaments and the Adult-Child Relationship. 4 likes. Book.
Your child is not intentionally attempting to hurt you. An insecure attachment style does not mean he dislikes you or that you are a bad parent. Temperament is a product of many different factors, and you are not to blame. It is important that you recognize this and do not allow your feelings to affect your relationship with your child.
The four attachment categories that infants are put into are: Securely attached infants have a good quality of relationship with their parents.
In the strange situation, where parents leave their child alone or with a stranger in a room full of toys, these children are upset when their parents leave, but easily comforted when they return.
It is important to adapt your parenting methods to fit your child. Children with difficult temperaments or who are ambivalently attached should not be left alone with strangers on a regular basis, which can cause them to distrust their parents.
To support a secure attachment, or avoid an insecure one, early on you can reflect on your own relationship with your parents and attempt to recognize negative effects, which could impact your own relationship with your child. Thus, if your childhood experience with your parents was difficult, it is important to make a conscious effort to not repeat their mistakes made dealing with you.
Parents act as direct instructors, indirect socializers and social managers for their children. As a parent you will influence your children through the rules you set for them, the information, advice, and strategies you provide them with, your daily actions, which show them how they should behave in day-to-day situations, and by managing their activities and social interactions.
Therefore it is important to understand that how you parent your child has a significant impact on his identity development as well as how he interacts with others and views the world. According to Baumrind, there are four different styles in which you, as a parent, can fulfill these roles. A parent who has high levels in both categories is described as an authoritative parent. This is considered to be the most positive parenting style.
As an authoritative parent you would have a strong emotional tie to your child, but would also be highly demanding, with rules and expectations you expect your child to meet. Authoritative parents are the most likely to beneficially influence their child and guide them to success. As an authoritative parent you should try to set clear rules for your child to follow, with consequences when those rules are broken, and occasional rewards when you feel they are doing well.
If your child goes out before doing an assignment, and fails to complete it as a result, you could tell the child that he cannot go out for a week. On the contrary if you feel your child has done a good job keeping up with his schoolwork and grades, you could get him something that they wanted, or take him out to do something fun.
In these cases the consequence for breaking the rules provides an incentive to follow them in the future, while the reward provides further incentive to continue to follow the rules.
In contrast, nonresponsive parents are aloof, rejecting, or critical. They show little pleasure in their children and are often insensitive to their emotional needs. Some parents are demanding, while others are too tolerant. Children's healthy psychological development is facilitated when the parents are both responsive and moderately demanding. During toddlerhood, children often begin to assert their need for autonomy by challenging their parents.
Sometimes, the child's newfound assertiveness during the so-called terrible twos can put a strain on the parent-child relationship. It is important that parents recognize that this behavior is normal for the toddler, and the healthy development of independence is promoted by a parent-child relationship that provides support for the child's developing sense of autonomy.
In many regards, the security of the first attachment between infant and parent provides the child with the emotional base to begin exploring the world outside the parent-child relationship.
Preschool Various parenting styles evolve during the preschool years. Preschoolers with authoritative parents are curious about new experiences, focused and skilled at playself-reliant, self-controlled, and cheerful. School age During the elementary school years, the child becomes increasingly interested in peers, but this is not be a sign of disinterest in the parent-child relationship.
Rather, with the natural broadening of psychosocial and cognitive abilities, the child's social world expands to include more people and settings beyond the home environment. The parent-child relationship remains the most important influence on the child's development. Children whose parents are both responsive and demanding continue to thrive psychologically and socially during the middle childhood years.
During the school years, the parent-child relationship continues to be influenced by the child and the parents. In most families, patterns of interaction between parent and child are well established in the elementary school years.
The relationship between temperament and fearfulness in adult dental phobic patients.
Adolescence As the child enters adolescencebiological, cognitive, and emotional changes transform the parent-child relationship. The child's urges for independence may challenge parents' authority. Many parents find early adolescence a difficult period. Adolescents fare best and their parents are happiest when parents can be both encouraging and accepting of the child's needs for more psychological independence.
Although the value of peer relations grows during adolescence, the parent-child relationship remains crucial for the child's psychological development.
Authoritative parenting that combines warmth and firmness has the most positive impact on the youngster's development. Adolescents who have been reared authoritatively continue to show more success in school, better psychological development, and fewer behavior problems.
Adolescence may be a time of heightened bickering and diminished closeness in the parent-child relationship, but most disagreements between parents and young teenagers are over less important matters, and most teenagers and parents agree on the essentials.
By late adolescence most children report feeling as close to their parents as they did during elementary school. Parenting styles Parenting has four main styles: Although no parent is consistent in all situations, parents do follow some general tendencies in their approach to childrearing, and it is possible to describe a parent-child relationship by the prevailing style of parenting. These descriptions provide guidelines for both professionals and parents interested in understanding how variations in the parent-child relationship affect the child's development.
Parenting style is shaped by the parent's developmental history, education, and personality; the child's behavior; and the immediate and broader context of the parent's life. Also, the parent's behavior is influenced by the parent's work, the parents' marriage, family finances, and other conditions likely to affect the parent's behavior and psychological well-being.
In addition, parents in different cultures, from different social classes, and from different ethnic groups rear their children differently. In any event, children's behavior and psychological development are linked to the parenting style with which they are raised. Authoritarian parents Authoritarian parents are rigid in their rules; they expect absolute obedience from the child without any questioning.
They also expect the child to accept the family beliefs and principles without questions. Authoritarian parents are strict disciplinarians, often relying on physical punishment and the withdrawal of affection to shape their child's behavior. Children raised with this parenting style are often moody, unhappy, fearful, and irritable.
They tend to be shy, withdrawn, and lack self-confidence. If affection is withheld, the child commonly is rebellious and antisocial. Authoritative parents Authoritative parents show respect for the opinions of each of their children by allowing them to be different.
Although there are rules in the household, the parents allow discussion if the children do not understand or agree with the rules. These parents make it clear to the children that although they the parents have final authority, some negotiation and compromise may take place. Authoritative parents are both responsive and demanding; they are firm, but they discipline with love and affection, rather than power, and they are likely to explain rules and expectations to their children instead of simply asserting them.
This style of parenting often results in children who have high self-esteem and are independent, inquisitive, happy, assertive, and interactive. Permissive parents Permissive indulgent parents have little or no control over the behavior of their children. If any rules exist in the home, they are followed inconsistently. Underlying reasons for rules are given, but the children decide whether they will follow the rule and to what extent.
They learn that they can get away with any behavior. Indulgent parents are responsive but not especially demanding. They have few expectations of their children and impose little or inconsistent discipline.
There are empty threats of punishment without setting limits. Role reversal occurs; the children act more like the parents, and the parents behave like the children. Children of permissive parents may be disrespectful, disobedient, aggressive, irresponsible, and defiant.
Parent-Child Relationships - baby, Definition, Description
They are insecure because they lack guidelines to direct their behavior. However, these children are frequently creative and spontaneous. Although low in both social responsibility and independence, they are usually more cheerful than the conflicted and irritable children of authoritarian parents.
Disengaged parents Finally, disengaged detached parents are neither responsive nor demanding. They may be careless or unaware of the child's needs for affection and discipline. Children whose parents are detached have higher numbers of psychological difficulties and behavior problems than other youngsters.
Parental concerns Child's development is affected by family conditions such as divorce, remarriage, and parental employment. The parent-child relationship has a more important influence on the child's psychological development than changes in the composition of the household.
Parenting that is responsive and demanding is related to healthier child development regardless of the parent's marital or employment status. If changes in the parent's marital status or work life disrupt the parent-child relationship, short-term effects on the child's behavior may be noticeable.
One goal of professionals who work with families under stress is to help them reestablish healthy patterns of parent-child interaction. Discipline is also a concern of parents.
The Temperaments and the Adult-Child Relationship by Kristie Karima Burns MH ND on Apple Books
Children's behavior offers challenges to even the most experienced and effective parents. The manner in which parents respond to a child's behavior has an effect on the child's self-esteem and future interactions with others.
Children learn to view themselves in the same way the parent views them. Thus, if the parent views the child as wild, the child begins to view himself that way and soon his actions consistently reinforce his self image.
This way, the child does not disappoint the parent. This pattern is a self-fulfilling prophecy.