The Relationship between Advertising Industry and Media Essay Example | Graduateway
Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial. Earned advertising is a more organic form that involves word of mouth, consumer reviews and free spots with media outlets, such as spot on a local TV news. Get help on 【 The Relationship between Advertising Industry and Media popular “Texaco Star Theater the “Camel News Caravan and “The Hallmark Hall of.
Gurvey left PBS and joined the thousands of other journalists cut loose amid the decline of the mainstream, mostly advertising-supported media. Testing the freelance market, he was surprised to find that one of the most interesting offers came from Cisco Systems, the giant California-based manufacturer of computer networking equipment.
Cisco didn't want Mr. Gurvey to churn out press releases — it wanted him to be a journalist, reporting on many of the technology topics he'd covered at PBS, for the company's new website, The Network.
Story continues below advertisement And that is how Mr. Gurvey became an adventurer in the strange new realm known as "brand journalism. Familiar examples include the cocktails-and-recipes magazines you might pick up at the liquor store, or inflight magazines on airplanes that report from exotic destinations.
But the digital age has given brand journalism a new urgency. It's becoming a force that could shape the way all of us receive our information. Most purchasing decisions today begin with a search query "What kinds of snow tires should I buy? The vast majority of clicks go to the top two or three results on the search page.
And in recent years, Google has been tweaking its search algorithm to highlight sites that provide fresh, relevant content. As a result, says Joe Pulizzi, the founder of the Content Marketing Institute, every company now must also be a media company.
Pulizzi argues, "and corporations can provide that just as well as media companies. It's not easy, and that's what makes some experts nervous. The difference is not so much how the story is done, but why it's done: Brand journalism is produced to meet business objectives.
The stories may be fairly and accurately reported by respected journalists such as Mr.
Examples of the Relationship Between the Media and Advertising
Gurvey, but the fundamental aim remains marketing. It is always more about the brand than the journalism: It's not an attempt to ferret out the truth between opposing narratives.
Another question is how media outlets that rely on advertising from brands can survive, when those brands have begun competing with them for readers. Paid advertising is simply advertisements that a business pays for. This includes ads on television and radio and in magazines and newspapers, but as the Internet overtakes traditional media outlets, it also includes pay-per-click ads, search engine optimization and featured ads on websites such as Facebook, YouTube and online newspapers and magazines.
Earned advertising is a more organic form that involves word of mouth, consumer reviews and free spots with media outlets, such as spot on a local TV news program or being mentioned in a newspaper article. Positive Effects of Paid Advertising Paid advertising allows small businesses to reach a large audience in a short amount of time.
By including branding in advertisements, the business is able to include a phrase or image that will stick with consumers and help them remember the company. Many media outlets conduct their own research related to demographics and help businesses place their advertisements where they will reach consumers most likely to be interested in the product.
For example, ads for a small makeup company will not be run in a business magazine or during a news program. Negative Effects of Paid Advertising Paid advertising is often expensive and can be a strain on the budget of a small business, especially if it is not effective in attracting consumers.
More speculatively, the extent of tobacco advertising may differ by newspaper size because of differences in the nature of the advertising base for large versus smaller newspapers. Is there a difference among different sizes of newspapers relative to the ratio of tobacco advertisements and total pages? Likewise, there may be differences in the amount of alcohol advertising by newspaper size because of differences in the nature of the advertising base for large versus smaller newspapers: Is there a difference among different sizes of newspapers relative to the ratio of alcohol advertisements and total pages?
Method Data were from a grant funded by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse AA that studied newspaper coverage of alcohol and tobacco risks and media advertising of alcohol and tobacco. This study used a nationally representative sample of daily newspapers. Two day constructed months were created, one each from and Each constructed month was balanced with respect to day of the week to address variations in daily news holes.
The number of markets per stratum varied from three in the top stratum to in the bottom stratum to achieve approximate equivalence in population per stratum. Using six strata permitted reasonable regional representation in all strata and reasonable homogeneity of market size within each stratum.
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- The Relationship between Advertising Industry and Media Essay
For each DMA chosen on a given sample date, three daily newspapers, representing different circulation categories, were selected. Also, it determined the average number of alcohol and tobacco ads per page. Alcohol and tobacco story identification As part of a larger study of media content, coders selected newspaper stories about the following topics: Stories qualified to be in the larger study if they were news and editorial content, specifically news stories, features, sidebars, editorials, letters to the editor, columns and commentaries.
Sections that were not coded for the news editorial part of this study included sports box scores, entertainment reviews, calendars of events, obituaries and advertisements, including classified and personal ads.
Only the alcohol and tobacco stories are used in the current analysis. To be coded as an alcohol or tobacco item, stories had to mention the growing, manufacturing, distribution, sale or use of either of these substances in the beginning of the story i. Because of the lengthy time involved in coding stories over the two-year period, we tested twice for intercoder drift; reliabilities remained good, ranging between.
Alcohol and tobacco advertisement identification Two trained coders used a coding scheme to determine the number and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertisements. For this study, we defined alcohol and tobacco ads as follows: Classified advertisements, advertising inserts, in-house advertisements, advertorials and advertisements for books, films, plays and recorded music were not coded, as they might only include minor reference to alcohol or tobacco.
An ad that continued across pages but did not stand alone on any page was considered just one advertisement. Coders read up to the three largest sizes of advertising type to see whether any words in the ad related to alcohol or tobacco. If the second or third largest size of type within an advertisement was the body copy, defined as two or more lines of solid text within an advertisement, then coders stopped reading at the preceding level.
Sample terms used to determine whether an advertisement mentioned alcohol were: Sample terms used to establish tobacco content were any brand of tobacco, nicotine, cigarettes, menthols and smoking. To check the reliability of the coding scheme, coders coded a randomly selected sample of newspapers that represented all six DMAs.
Coders independently counted the number of alcohol advertisements, the number of tobacco advertisements and the total number of display advertisements. This yielded Pearson product moment correlations coefficients of.
Results A total of newspapers were coded for this study, with 97 tobacco ads and alcohol ads analyzed. The amount of tobacco advertising in newspapers in the post-MSA era results showed that 88 newspapers contained tobacco display advertisements and Of the newspapers with tobacco ads, 80 8.
Turning to alcohol findings, the total number of newspapers with alcohol display advertisements waswith The number of alcohol ads appearing in the newspapers were as follows: The mean number of alcohol advertisements per issue across all the newspapers was.
All told, 1, alcohol stories and tobacco stories were analyzed from the newspapers. Of the newspapers, The mean number of stories published was 1.12 Difference Between Public Relations and Advertising
As for tobacco stories, Hypothesis testing used bivariate correlation analyses, with subgroup comparison on the control variables. Looking with subgroupings of the two control variables, the nonsignificant result holds up.
Subgrouping according to above and below the median split on size of paper yielded the following partial correlations: Looking at the patterns of relationships within the control variable subgroups showed nonsignificant findings, as well. Subgrouping according to size showed the following relationships between number of alcohol ads and number of stories about alcohol: Subgrouping according to geographical regions for the same relationship results in the following: RQ2, which examined the same differences for alcohol advertisements, also did not show significant differences across geographic regions.
Discussion The infrequency with which tobacco advertisements were found in newspapers is encouraging from a public health standpoint.
It appears that the Master Settlement Agreement and changes in public norms, including social stigma against consumption of tobacco, have led to the near disappearance of tobacco advertising from newspapers, where once it was extremely prominent. While the frequency of alcohol advertising in newspapers was higher than for tobacco, it is still in absolute terms low, averaging less than one ad per newspaper edition.
It is important to note that these advertisements have likely moved to other media where youth may be still be a principle target. Although these findings suggest modest alcohol and tobacco advertising levels in general interest U.
Although college newspapers were not part of this study they have been the subject of recent content analyses which suggest they are a target for advertising alcohol and tobacco. Heavy substance advertising in college newspapers, which reach an audience that is largely underage at least with respect to alcohol use, is not a reflection of norms in newspaper advertising, but is in fact anomalous and therefore perhaps worthy of greater attention.
The Effective Relationship Between Television Advertising and Social Media Ads
The inability to replicate previous research that found a negative relationship between amount of tobacco advertising and editorial coverage albeit in magazines, not newspapers is unsurprising.
Even if the same had been true of newspapers two decades ago, tobacco advertising has decreased to such a low level in U. The lack of findings on the relationships between tobacco and alcohol advertisements and newspaper size suggests that information about health risks may be spreading effectively across the United States. This might also be evident in reductions nationally in consumption of alcohol and tobacco within certain population subgroups, but that is beyond the scope of this study.