The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between personality type and job satisfaction amongst corporate employees in Ireland. A survey conducted. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CAREER SATISFACTION AND. PERSONALITY TYPE FOR EMPLOYED DIETITIANS. By. ROBIN BROWN FELLERS. Since then, considerable attention has focused on the relationship between individual personalities and job satisfaction because it is assumed that identifying individual specific personality types can predict.
The agreeableness linked to altruism, nurturance, caring and emotional support versus competitiveness, hostility, indifference, self-centeredness, spitefulness and jealousy [ 6 ]. Conscientiousness is characterized by personal competence, dutifulness, self-discipline, and deliberation.
Conscientious individuals are frequently described as purposeful, strong willed, determined, punctual, and reliable [ 7 ]. It describes neuroticism as emotional instability and adjustment characterized by negative emotions such as fear, anger, sadness, and negative self-concept and low self-esteem [ 7 ]. Openness to experience is a measure of depth, breadth and variability in a person's imagination and urge for experiences [ 6 ]. We see personality as external appearance and behavior, as inner awareness of self and unique patterns of measurable permanent traits.
The characteristics that make up the whole person include physique, Intellectual and their interests, attitudes, beliefs, values and expressive life styles. Different people tried to define the personality. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people.
Personality is complex, and normal science approaches are inadequate to represent it. There are some important relationships between its personality factors and job performance. Personality is a living system that is self-organizing, self-maintaining, selftranscending, and self-renewing. Personality is an open system which is receptive to inputs and exchanges [ 10 ]. Eysenck and Jurgen [ 11 ] say that Personality is a continuously developing unity.
It is shaped by environmental conditions, not animistic forces. While change is possible, it is not to be achieved merely by verbal magic. Scientific thinking about personality requires that we have abandoned evaluate, good-bad, moralistic concepts and study human beings with the same mature realism that we have learned to use so effectively in the physical realm. Bano [ 12 ] says that there are two factors which plays important role in personality.
Heredity is the transmission of traits from new generation to next through process of reproduction. The role of gene is very important in this connection because they act as the unit determining the hereditary traits. The word environment includes all the conditions inside and outside the organism that influence in one way our behavior, growth, development or life processes except the genes.
Impact of Personality Type on Job Productivity
Personality construct In BC, Hippocrates claimed that different personality types are caused by the balance of bodily fluids. The terms he developed are still sometimes used today in describing personality, which are Phlegmatic calmsanguine optimisticmelancholic depressed and irritable people. Willhem Wundt described the four temperamental types in terms of two dimensions; strong-weak emotions verses changeable-unchangeable activity [ 13 ].
Most of personality is unconscious: Introversion and extraversion is a major aspect of personality [ 14 ]. It views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and the social context.
It is proposed that our thoughts and actions originate in the social world but it is essential to note that human beings have capacity for self-regulation and engage in active cognitive processes. Human motives are arranged in a hierarchy of needs. Human needs are organized from physiological needs to selftranscendence. People are motivated to act in accordance with their self-concept. They deny or distort the experiences that are contrary to their self-concept [ 1 ].
Many economists and psychologists assume that preference and personality parameters are fixed early in life. The evidence suggests otherwise. Recent research shows how cognitive and personality skills are affected by parental investments and life experiences [ 16 ].
This is based on his theory that all people share a collective unconscious that consists of universal memories and images, which he called archetypes.
The test is based on the work of Carl Jung [ 14 ], a Swiss psychologist who believed that personality traits are innate.
Basic Model is based on four ranges. Thinking T people prefer to decide on the basis of logic, analysis and reason. They tend to follow their head rather than their heart, whereas Feeling F people usually decide first on the basis of personal preferences, second, on the basis of logic. Perceiving P types are more spontaneous and seek out additional information and options. Judging J types tend to be planners, preferring more order and structure.
Sensing S people prefer concrete facts, organization and structure. Intuitive N people tend more to hunches. They want to know the theory first before deciding what facts are important.
The Role of Personality in Job Satisfaction Among Collegiate Athletic Trainers
Extroverts E are more energized by interaction with others, Introverts I by the inner world of reflection, thought and contemplation [ 17 ]. He developed a well-known theory, and designed several assessments and supporting materials to assist people in making effective career choices Holland found that people needing help with career decisions can be supported by understanding their resemblance to the six ideal vocational personality types which are Realistic RInvestigative IArtistic ASocial SEnterprising E and Conventional C.
Work settings can also be categorized by their resemblance to six similar model work environments. Because people search for environments that allow them to express their interests, skills, attitudes and values, and take on interesting problems and agreeable roles, work environments become populated by individuals with related occupational personality types.
Big five factor model A model developed for using factor analysis to try to determine the key traits in human personality. Although trait theories were well established by the s, there was no consensus concerning the number or nature of the traits that make up personality. The Big Five structure captures, at a broad level of abstraction, commonalities among most of the existing systems of personality description, and provides an integrative descriptive model for personality research [ 19 ].
Economists are not alone in their interest in the description, prediction, and explanation of human behavior. Psychologists, too, have approached these challenges. Economists can profitably leverage research from psychology on the measurement, prediction, and malleability of personality traits organized in the widely accepted Big Five taxonomy [ 16 ]. Extraversion Extraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoying with people, are full of energy, and often experience positive emotions.
They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented, individuals who are likely to say "Yes! In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves. Openness to experience Openness to experience is a measure of depth, breadth and variability in a person's imagination and urge for experiences.
The factor relates to intellect, openness to new ideas, cultural interests, educational aptitude and creativity as well as an interest in varied sensory and cognitive experiences. People with a high openness to experience have broad interests, are liberal and like novelty. The preservers with low openness to experience are conventional, conservative and prefer familiarity [ 6 ].
Agreeableness The agreeableness linked to altruism, nurturance, caring and emotional support versus competitiveness, hostility, indifference, selfcenteredness, spitefulness and jealousy [ 6 ]. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is a measure of goal-directed behavior and amount of control over impulses. Conscientiousness has been linked to educational achievement and particularly to the will to achieve. The focused person concentrates on a limited number of goals but strives hard to reach them, while the flexible person is more impulsive and easier to persuade from one task to another [ 20 ].
Neuroticism Neuroticism is a measure of affect and emotional control.
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Low levels of neuroticism indicate emotional stability whereas high levels of neuroticism increase the likelihood of experiencing negative emotions. Persons with high levels of neuroticism are reactive and more easily bothered by stimuli in their environment.
They more frequently become unstable, worried, temperamental and sad. Resistant persons on the other hand need strong stimuli to be provoked [ 14 ]. Productivity Profit is a measure of surplus of amount incurred over income over expense.
Productivity is an output-input ratio within a time period with due consideration for quality [ 21 ]. Measuring productivity starts from an input minimizing production frontier model based on real input, output and quality attributes. Productivity can be analyzed from quality and quantity of products. The degree of reward influences the quality and quantity of work, and in turn productivity. Factors affecting productivity Workforce demographics are strongly co-related with productivity and output.
The results suggest that a significant portion of the productivity gap between rich and poor countries is related to different demographic structures [ 22 ]. The majority of studies show associations between mental health conditions and absenteeism. When presenteeism is measured by a validated questionnaire, results show that depression significantly impacts on-the-job productivity presenteeism.
Studies also indicate that the treatment expenditures for employees with depression may be offset by reductions in absenteeism, disability and on the job productivity losses [ 23 ]. A direct correlation was also found between low productivity and poor communication between management, supervisors and employees.
Productivity can be improved by increasing employee involvement and communication [ 24 ]. Workforce productivity can be related to a variety of factors, which may influence productivity directly by occupational environment or on-the-job-training or indirectly by the effect of health and well-being [ 22 ].
Whereas employing many employees by temporary contracts appears to have a negative effect on productivity [ 25 ]. Personality and job type A number of studies of accountants have shown a clear and consistent dominance of certain personality preferences, with some authors expressing concern about the implied narrowness of the accounting profession and the possible lack of certain valued skills such as strategic thinking and persuasive communication.
Carol and Richard [ 1 ] suggested that future research should also determine if organizations employing accountants are attempting to assess whether potential employees possess the requisite personality type apparently necessary for success.
Empirical findings of John and Frederic [ 18 ] determine that the differences in team performance were primarily caused by differences in the personality-type composition of the two teams.
As a result, professionals can also use these labels to help know better which people will form the most cohesive teams or in what way teams are not working together optimally [ 22 ]. Significant differences were found between franchisee ownership groups on four personality measures conscientiousness, emotional stability, empathic perspective taking and emotional intelligence and service type groups on two measures extraversion and empathic perspective [ 26 ].
Younger workers are seen to be more amenable to risk and regular changes in job type and location, while older workers, and those with families of their own, tend to value secure employment. Older workers, particularly those whose own families have been established, may also become more interested in intrinsic job rewards associated with feelings of satisfaction in providing services to the community. The results reported in this study shows that intuitive and thinking students do not perform well on open-ended quantitative test.
Moreover, intuitive students are not very good when it comes to multiple-choice quantitative test. Finally, feeling, sensing, and thinking students perform better on multiplechoice theory tests.
The components interaction and distraction are constantly perceived as the components that have the most positive and most negative effect, respectively, on perceived productivity.
John and Frederic [ 18 ] suggest that personality types are an important factor in successful team performance. Organizations that desire to develop effective teams need to analyze the personality-type compositions of these groups and help team members understand their own personal attributes as well as appreciate the contribution of the other team members.
Group comparisons revealed that psychological characteristics as well as the business environment were both significant predictors. Psychological characteristics were a stronger influence for potential entrepreneurs and the business environment stronger for successful entrepreneurs [ 27 ].
The covert behaviors of organizational members refer to such psychological phenomena as job satisfaction, involvement and other related attitudes and beliefs. The overt behaviors, on the other hand, refer to directly observable behaviors such as absenteeism, tardiness, and other forms of on-the-job behavior.How to Discover Personality Type and Achieve a Successful Career?
It is the task of organizational psychologists to identify these behaviors and establish specific causal relationships between these behaviors and productivity.
Our results indicate less satisfaction with the collegiate setting as years certified and years at current institution increase. This could help explain the lower numbers among older, more experienced ATs; they could be leaving the collegiate setting for a more suitable setting or moving out of the profession altogether.
We identified a sharp decline in the number of collegiate ATs over the age of 30 years, with only 7 ATs over the age of 35, 2 of whom were over This finding is not surprising for 2 main reasons: Other authors 40 have also shown that most collegiate ATs were age 35 or younger. Our findings help expand the explanation for this result, indicating that an AT's personality influences his or her assessment of job satisfaction, which in turn influences the decision to remain in the profession.
This could also simply indicate a low priority placed on completing our survey rather than lower actual job satisfaction. Women in our sample reported higher levels of neuroticism than their male counterparts.
Previous studies with the BFI have also shown that women displayed higher levels of neuroticism than men. Schmitt et al 41 also noted that women reported higher levels of extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness than men and concluded that, with greater human development and with more opportunities for gender equality, the Big Five personalities of men and women did not become more similar.
We did observe sex differences in personality, with the exception of neuroticism. It is possible that, because all of our participants were employed in the same profession, certain personalities are drawn to athletic training. Furthermore, sex differences are rarely reported in athletic training for professional concerns of work-life balance and parenting; thus, we did not expect to find any differences in regard to personality and job satisfaction.
Research in the area of job satisfaction and gender indicates that women are paid less ie, earnings gapbut they appear more satisfied with their jobs than men in the United States and Great Britain.
The first is that satisfaction is a function of expectations. If women have generally lower expectations about their job outcomes, their expectations are more easily fulfilled. Second, the problem could be in selection. A large portion of women are not employed by their own choice.
It is possible that employed women are not a random sample of the entire female population and that employed women may be generally happier than nonemployed women.
The Role of Personality in Job Satisfaction Among Collegiate Athletic Trainers
Many women choose not to work, but others make the difficult decision to depart their professions to care for and raise their families.
Although this is a decision made by many women of their own choosing, it is not necessarily an easy one or one that prevents them from second guessing themselves. Women are typically still primarily responsible for childcare and housework and men for the financial aspects of a household.
Therefore, women who are dissatisfied with their jobs may be more likely to leave the labor force. As Clark 42 stated, less social pressure is placed on women than on men to be successful at work. Previous research 45 — 47 on professional commitment of ATs has shown that individuals in this profession are highly intrinsically motivated.
Perhaps this motivation is a manifestation of certain personality traits common to ATs. Authors of a study 48 conducted in a university setting found support for the potential mediating role of intrinsic motivation between creativity and openness.
Further investigation of individual personality traits of ATs is warranted to identify similarities. We did not examine organizational structure, organizational climate, or the cultures of the individual participants' places of employment.
Each of these factors can affect one's role within an organization, and therefore, we cannot say how these factors may have influenced our participants' job satisfaction.
We do know, however, that certain personality domains likely make a person more or less susceptible to individual organizational cultures and climates. This limitation, however, provides the backdrop for future investigations in which those organizational facets are examined and evaluated for links with career placement and success. Similar to Terranova and Henning, 25 we recognize that response bias was another primary limitation.
The design of our survey did not allow us to track nonrespondents, and thus, we cannot determine if the demographics and personality domain and job-satisfaction scores were similar in nonrespondents. It is also important to note that we used a strictly quantitative approach to assessing personality and job satisfaction; future authors may pursue a mixed-methods approach to further understand ATs' personality assessments and their love of their jobs.
Impact of Personality Type on Job Productivity | OMICS International
Additionally, our work was a measurement of personality at 1 time point and did not examine any longitudinal effects.
Future researchers should examine the influence of personality over time; as indicated by other studies, time of year can play a role in the personal assessment of satisfaction, workload, and balance. Our results provide a baseline for future assessments to continue to evaluate ATs' personalities and their relationship to other factors, including burnout and work-life conflict.
We examined personality using only the Big Five construct. Other facets of personality, such as hardiness, could provide insights into the job satisfaction of ATs. Hardiness is often described as a personality attribute that relates to stability, coping, and resiliency, all fundamental characteristics that are likely to promote persistence among this population.
Thus, we believe that future investigators should examine the relationships among personality, hardiness, resiliency, and job satisfaction. Additionally, future authors should explore how our knowledge of the relationship of personality to job satisfaction could enhance or potentially change the athletic training working environment. Simply stated, these ATs appeared to be outgoing and to find time spent at work rewarding.