AGR EROSION - ITS EFFECT ON SOIL PROPERTIES, PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFIT
I need several papers about "effects of soil texture on soil erosion. .. by texture particularly when the fines that act as clogs in between the particles In the case of water erosion, soil erodibility increases with increase in the size of soil separates. . The observed relationships reflect the possibility to better evaluate both the. and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil textural class can be determined using a soil textural aeration, susceptibility to erosion, cation exchange capacity Between 2 and 5 percent of the solid material is. pores: the spaces between soil particles and between soil aggregates; pores can Organic matter helps soil store more water, prevents erosion, and produces.
Clay textured soil have small pores more like narrow pipes that do not allow water to soak into the soil fast. Clay soils are known to have poor infiltration and drainage. Second, particles vary in their ease of detachment.
Soil texture and water quality
Silt particles are most easily detached because they are small and do not easily form aggregates. The soil property which describes the character and formation of these aggregates is called soil structure. The glue that joins the soil particles together includes organic matter, clays, iron oxides, aluminum oxides, and lime.
Aggregate formation in clay-textured soil improves water infiltration into the soil and drainage because it increases the number of large pores larger pipes.
Soil Texture and Water Percolation
In sandy textured soil, aggregate formation reduces the excessively fast drainage of water by increasing the number of small pores narrow pipes.
Aggregates can be described by their grade.
The grade is a measure of how well the aggregate is cemented together or, conversely, how easily it is broken down by the impact of water, wind, or human activity. A soil with good structure has many aggregates present which are stable, meaning well cemented together. Such aggregates resist the forces of water, wind, and human activity.
It is firm when moist and hard when dry.
Soil and Water Relationships
Water-holding capacity is controlled primarily by soil texture and organic matter. Soils with smaller particles silt and clay have a larger surface area than those with larger sand particles, and a large surface area allows a soil to hold more water.
In other words, a soil with a high percentage of silt and clay particles, which describes fine soil, has a higher water-holding capacity. The table illustrates water-holding-capacity differences as influenced by texture. Organic matter percentage also influences water-holding capacity. As the percentage increases, the water-holding capacity increases because of the affinity organic matter has for water. Water availability is illustrated in the figure by water levels in three different soil types.
Excess or gravitational water drains quickly from the soil after a heavy rain because of gravitational forces saturation point to field capacity. Plants may use small amounts of this water before it moves out of the root zone.
Available water is retained in the soil after the excess has drained field capacity to wilting point. This water is the most important for crop or forage production.
Plants can use approximately 50 percent of it without exhibiting stress, but if less than 50 percent is available, drought stress can result. Unavailable water is soil moisture that is held so tightly by the soil that it cannot be extracted by the plant. Water remains in the soil even below plants' wilting point.
One can see from the table that soil texture greatly influences water availability. The sandy soil can quickly be recharged with soil moisture but is unable to hold as much water as the soils with heavier textures.
As texture becomes heavier, the wilting point increases because fine soils with narrow pore spacing hold water more tightly than soils with wide pore spacing. Soil is a valuable resource that supports plant life, and water is an essential component of this system.
Management decisions concerning types of crops to plant, plant populations, irrigation scheduling, and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer to apply depend on the amount of moisture that is available to the crop throughout the growing season. By understanding some physical characteristics of the soil, you can better define the strengths and weaknesses of different soil types.
The table and figures were originally published by the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.