Stereotypes of Jews - Wikipedia
The inextricable relationship between literature and culture reflects the continual Authors sometimes employ character types, or stock characters, sometimes and stereotyping that identifies others based on gender, race, religion, ethnicity. These character types that are easy to recognize are known as stock and stereotypical characters. A Stereotypical Character is a familiar type of character whose label ideas concerning occupation, race, gender, age, ethnicity, or religion. Stereotypes of Jews are generalized representations of Jews, often caricatured and of a In part due to their Middle Eastern ethnic origins, Jews tend to be portrayed as . The association of this otherwise gender stereotype with Jewish mothers in The Jewish mother became one of two stock female Jewish characters in.
The focus of the Jewish mother stereotype that arose was based in a shift in economic circumstances of American Jews during the 20th century. American Jews were no longer struggling first generation immigrants, living in impoverished neighborhoods.
The "soldier woman" work ethos of Jewish women, and the levels of anxiety and dramatization of their lives, was seen as unduly excessive for lifestyles that had for middle-class Jews become far more secure and suburban by the middle of the century. Jewish literature came to focus upon the differences between Jewish women and what Jews saw as being the various idealized views of American women, the "blonde bombshell", the "sex kitten", or the sweet docile "apple-pie" blonde who always supported her man.
In contrast, Jewish writers viewed the still articulate and intelligent Jewish woman as being, by comparison, pushy, unrefined, and unattractive. A Jewish mother was a woman who had her own ideas about life, who attempted to conquer her sons and her husband, and who used food, hygiene, and guilt as her weapons.
Like Helmreich, Fishman observes that while it began as a universal gender stereotype, exemplified by Erik Erikson 's critique of "Momism" in and Philip Wylie 's blast, in his Generation of Vipers, against "dear old Mom" tying all of male America to her apron strings, it quickly became highly associated with Jewish mothers in particular, in part because the idea became a staple of Jewish American fiction.
In her essay "In Defense of the Jewish Mother", Zena Smith Blau defended the stereotype, asserting that the ends, inculcating virtues that resulted in success, justified the means, control through love and guilt. Being tied to mamma kept Jewish boys away from "[g]entile friends, particularly those from poor, immigrant families with rural origins in which parents did not value education".
She observes that there appears to have been no conscious effort on the part of screenwriters or film-makers to rewrite or change the stereotype, in pursuance of some revisionist agenda, but that it has simply fallen back a generation. One use of the Jewish mother stereotype-trope can be seen in the popular television program The Big Bang Theorywhich premiered inand was played by the character of Howard Wolowitz's mother who is only heard as a voice character.
Wolowitz is loud, overbearing, and over-protective of her son. In the television show South ParkSheila Broflovskimother of main character Kyle Broflovskiis Jewish and represents a caricature of the stereotypes associated with her ethnicity and role, such as speaking loudly and with a Long Island accent and being overprotective of her son.
This stereotype of American Jewish women has been portrayed frequently in contemporary US media since the midth century. These men tend to be completely content with catering to her endless needs for food, material possessions, and attention.
The stereotype is often, though not always, the basis for jokes both inside and outside the Jewish community.
As the Character rose as a literary genre, many terms were coined in attempt to place labels on the new subject. The translation Theophrastus' title is based on the terms charassein and Charakter, associated with the stamping of an impression.
Stock Characters - TV Tropes
Rhetorica ad Herennium c. Later in his De InventioneCicero divided the character, or conformation as he called it, into eleven points: Senecatoo, played a part in providing labels for the new genre in his Epistulae Moraleusing the terms ethologia and characterismos for characteristic conduct of moral types.
Circa 93 AD, Quintilian 's Institutio Oratoria discussed the effect of personality on rhetoric and in so doing, coined the terms ethopoeia, an orator's imitation of another person's character or habits, and prosopopoeiathe same thing, but with a dramatization of the person as well as the giving of his words. Other terms conceived in the period include figurae sententiarum and descriptio personae. Decorumthe rhetorical principle that an individual's words and subject matter are appropriately matched, also became a relevant term, and would remain significant into the Renaissance.
Stereotypes of Jews
Supersession by philosophy[ edit ] The Romans' "perverse admiration for decorum"[ This quote needs a citation ] is in part responsible for the deterioration and the resulting blackout period of the Character genre.
During this blackout, the Character smoldered under the philosophies of such men as Horace.
In the Ars Poetica c. Horace's belief that "what is typical of a class should be observable in the individual" was illustrated in his epistles classifying Achilles as a man of rage and love, Paris an impractical lover, and Ulysses the model of virtue and wisdom.