Teaching and Learning
PBL is used extensively in nursing education to facilitate critical thinking in an exploration of the relationships between teaching, approaches to learning and. Nurse educators must adapt their teaching methods to meet every my graduate education, I read extensively on Adult Learning Theory that. Results: Caring in nursing education refers to faculty-student teaching-learning process is a mutual relationship between a teacher and.
This concept analysis of caring in the nursing education was conducted based on Broom methodology of integrative review. The literature was consisted of two books from two known theorists, and 47 relevant articles. Caring in nursing education refers to faculty-student interaction based on ethical and human values.
The development of values and moral principles in education, flexibility in educational processes, application of objective patterns in learning, and dynamism in educational processes are identified as caring concept attributes in teaching-learning process. This requires environmental support, constant human relationship, and knowing.
Internalization of values, achieving self-esteem, peace, and towards human evolution were the main achievements of the concept of caring in nursing education. The details obtained from the dimensions of "caring" concept in this study could be utilized by nursing education researchers and designers in order to develop content and structure for educational programs. Caring, Nursing education, Faculty, Student Introduction Studies in higher education show the significant of a learning atmosphere that is caring, confident, and welcoming, and favorable to academic growth for all students.
In the pedagogic context caring "involves developing rapport and going out of one's way to provide learning experiences geared toward students' attributes". Behaviorism tradition at education, inflexibility in scheduling educational programs, and administrative process are some of the factors that limit the application of caring collegiate environment.
According to Watson, the issue that prevents teacher-student interactions from being respectful, fruitful, and remedial is lack of caring at colleges, educational systems, and society. He considers caring as a mutual relationship between a care giver and receiver.
From caring perspective, teaching-learning process is a mutual relationship between a teacher and student in which their participation is vital to make learning meaningful.
Teaching and Learning
To achieve this goal, nursing researchers and experts have made an effort to incorporate human caring paradigm into nursing educational program. Nursing faculty are trying to incorporate caring as a valued basis in philosophic principals and educational programs. However, studies that provide insights on how caring can be applied as an educational approach are very limited.
However, they all confirm that there is a lack of caring concept analysis in education. Also, the meaning of caring in education is less precise. They pointed out that the caring concept in education is very similar to its concept in practice in their study and caring in teacher-student relationship is assumed to be similar to patient care behavior.
For instance, Beck stated some metaphors of caring in nursing education without its precise definition. It indicates that they are insufficient to draw a comprehensive picture of caring concept in education. To understand the concept and identify its dimensions, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive review of the concept in the literature.
As such, a concept analysis through integrative review of literature is applied in this study to elaborate the concept definition and its dimensions. Integrative review helps researchers integrate and classify new existing information relevant to the concept and leads to a comprehensive understanding of the concept. Materials and methods This study applied an integrative review method to analyze the caring concept in education. Integrative review method, one of the concept development methods, is the most comprehensive review method in which perfect understanding of the subject is obtained through simultaneous integrative of experimental and non-experimental studies.
Integrative review method includes five steps as follows: What definitions are presented from caring concept in nursing education? What attributes from caring concept in nursing education are presented based on the mentioned definitions? What are antecedents of caring in education? Resilience is defined as the ability to adapt well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even significant sources of stress De Chesnay It is the interaction between the person and the environment, and can be related to self-agency.
In this study resilience refers to the ability of the educator and student to cope effectively with stressors. Contribution to the field An exploration and description of what nursing students perceive as basic elements required for an effective educator—student relationship to strengthen their resilience enabled the formulation of recommendations to strengthen the resilience within the educator—student relationship and to improve the existing educator—student relationship.
Research method and design The research method and design are discussed by referring to the research design, population and sample, data collection, data analysis and the context of the study. Research design This study followed an explorative, descriptive and contextual qualitative design. The researcher selected this design to gain in-depth understanding of the phenomenon under investigation, namely, the basic elements in an effective educator—student relationship in the context of nursing education to strengthen the resilience of nursing students and to improve the educator—student relationship.
Population and sample The population used for this study comprised the enrolled nursing auxiliary students of a private nursing education institution NEI in a town in the semi-urban North West Province of South Africa. Purposive sampling was implemented. The sample consisted of an enrolled nursing auxiliary group of 40 students. The following inclusion criteria were used: Participants had to be enrolled as auxiliary nursing students with the specific nursing school where the study was conducted.
Participants had to be enrolled in the auxiliary nursing programme for at least 3 months to ensure that rich information could be obtained. According to Brown et al. This method was appropriate to the study because a large quantity of rich data could be collected over a short period of time and generated ideas and comments of 40 enrolled nursing auxiliary students on specific topics.
The tables were placed into five groups of eight participants with one poster, coloured markers and refreshments. Participants were asked to sit eight to a table and had a series of conversational rounds; lasting from 10 to 15 min each, with one discussion question at each table. What is needed in the teaching—learning environment to improve the relationship with your educator? What type of interaction will improve your relationship with your educator? What qualities must your educator display to improve the relationship between the educator and student?
How do you manage to stay resilient?
- The Relationship Between Learning and Teaching
- Faculty-Student Caring Interaction in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review
- There was a problem providing the content you requested
What suggestions can be implemented in the educator—student relationship to strengthen your resilience as students? At the end of each round, one person remained at each table as the host, while the other seven travelled to the next table. The newly arrived group then related to any of the written ideas and added new ones. This process continued until each group had been at all tables where the five questions were presented.
These group discussions were followed by a class discussion session of 30—60 min where participants reflected on the whole process and explained, clarified and verified their findings and ideas written down on the posters. The discussion session was audio recorded and then transcribed.
Faculty-Student Caring Interaction in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review
Field notes were taken throughout the process. A trial run was conducted a month before the actual data collection commenced. According to Brinka trail run is a small-scale version of the major study conducted on a limited number of participants.
The data collected during the trial run have not been included as part of the findings of the actual study as changes had to be made to the questions as initially formulated, namely, that it was revised to be more open-ended and clear in meaning. This involved moving deeper and deeper into understanding the data, representing the data and making interpretations of the larger meaning of the data. Inductive data analysis is used for qualitative research, which includes building patterns, themes and categories from the bottom-up and organising data into more abstract units Creswell Data analysis was done by reading through each poster individually and the transcription of the group discussion, moving into a deeper understanding of what participants perceived to be basic elements of an effective educator—student relationship to strengthen resilience and to improve the relationship.
The data set was interpreted as a whole, and not necessarily per question. The researcher made use of a co-analyst and both analysed data according to a data analysis work protocol. The researcher and co-analyst started to build patterns, themes and categories as evident from the data.
After the researcher and co-analyst analysed the data independently, a meeting was scheduled to reach consensus on the themes and categories that emerged from the data collected.
Context of the study The study was conducted in a private nursing educational institute NEI in the North West Province, and this consequently forms the context of the study. The NEI offers the enrolled nursing auxiliary course for a period of 1 year. There are two intakes of 40 enrolled nursing auxiliary students per year. The staffing includes one principal, two tutors, two clinical tutors, one enrolled nursing auxiliary, one administrative assistant and one cleaner.
The NEI is an accredited nursing education institution. The demographic profile of enrolled nursing auxiliaries is that they are mostly black females between the ages of 18—54 years, distributed from all over South Africa. Applicants must have at least a grade 10 certificate.
The researcher also obtained permission from the institution where the research was conducted. Potential benefits and hazards Participants were informed that they might experience slight emotional discomfort due to their participation.
A professional counsellor was on standby for debriefing and support. Ground rules to discuss confidentiality were discussed with the participants before the onset of data collection. Data were collected in a private, comfortable venue. Recruitment procedure An information session was held with prospective participants to inform them about the study as well as to explain the concept of resilience before the commencement of data collection.
Informed consent The researcher obtained voluntary informed written consent from the prospective participants.
Participants were given time to consider the invitation, and the researcher emphasised that they could withdraw or abstain at any time without discrimination or prejudice.