the origins of their art-work were traditionally associated to the ancient Toltec force of an idea, simply executed and manifested in the relationship between. Much of what is known about the Toltecs is based on what has been learned about the Aztecs, another Mesoamerican culture that postdated the Toltecs and. The Toltec civilization flourished in ancient central Mexico between the 10th and midth Most information on the Toltec comes from Aztec and Post-colonial texts suggest that there was a close cultural link between the two civilizations. aspects of Toltec religious practices and art and looked on the Toltec period as a.
The finest example of Toltec architecture is the temple that is called Star of Venus or Tlahuizcalpantecutli. This temple features gigantic carved idols called atlantes. The atlantes stand 15 feet, and they once supported the roof. They are examples of some of the finest stone craftsmanship in all of the ancient cultures. Toltec ceramics were also developed to a high level.
Some of the ceramic styles are also believed to be inherited from the Teotihuacan culture. The Toltec were so respected that virtually every tribe in the region claimed Toltec ancestry. They were led by a very powerful king named Mixcoatl.Introduction to the Aztecs (Mexica)
Before long, the Toltec defeated the Lobotomist and gained control over the entire area. According to legend, during the wars of conquest, in the town of Cuernavaca, Mixcoatl met a woman named Chimalma by whom she bore a son. Mixcoatl was assassinated before the baby could be born.
Then, the mother died during childbirth.
The boy was named Ce Acatl Topiltzin. Topiltzin was taken in by his grandparents who taught him the religion of his ancestors and the adoration of the god Quetzalcoatl. Later, when Topiltzin had grown, he would retake the lands of his father and establish the city of Tula.
Under his rule the Toltec made incredible progress in almost every area. This historicist view was first challenged by Daniel Garrison Brinton who argued that the "Toltecs" as described in the Aztec sources were merely one of several Nahuatl-speaking city-states in the Postclassic period, and not a particularly influential one at that. He attributed the Aztec view of the Toltecs to the "tendency of the human mind to glorify the good old days", and the confounding of the place of Tollan with the myth of the struggle between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca.
Ancient Aztec Art
Nicholsonwhich all held the Toltecs to have been an actual ethnic group. This school of thought connected the "Toltecs" to the archaeological site of Tulawhich was taken to be the Tollan of Aztec myth. Many historicists such as H. Nicholson and Nigel Davies were fully aware that the Aztec chronicles were a mixture of mythical and historical accounts; this led them to try to separate the two by applying a comparative approach to the varying Aztec narratives.
For example, they seek to discern between the deity Quetzalcoatl and a Toltec ruler often referred to as Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Depiction of an anthropomorphic bird-snake deity, probably Quetzalcoatl at the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli at Tula, Hidalgo View of the columns of the burned palace at Tula Hidalgo. The second ballcourt is in the background. Toltec warriors represented by the famous Atlantean figures in Tula.
In recent decades the historicist position has fallen out of favor for a more critical and interpretive approach to the historicity of the Aztec mythical accounts based on the original approach of Brinton.
This approach applies a different understanding of the word Toltec to the interpretation of the Aztec sources, interpreting it as largely a mythical and philosophical construct by either the Aztecs or Mesoamericans generally that served to symbolize the might and sophistication of several civilizations during the Mesoamerican Postclassic period.
Toltec - Wikipedia
Scholars such as Michel Graulich and Susan D. Gillespie maintained that the difficulties in salvaging historic data from the Aztec accounts of Toltec history are too great to overcome.
For example, there are two supposed Toltec rulers identified with Quetzalcoatl: The first is described as a valiant triumphant warrior, but the last as a feeble and self-doubting old man.