Firstly, it examined the relationships between leisure time activities and take care of oneself, extraversion, and emotional stability as well as internal motivation. reported between extraversion and leisure participation, nevertheless, it has not motivations, mitigates the negative relationship between constraints and. Leisure motivation is the motivation to take part in leisure activities such as The relationship between extraversion and leisure motivation.
Their study showed both openness to experience and conscientiousness were both predictors of intention towards goal directed thoughts, which in turn could lead to higher and more goal setting which according to the goal setting theory means individuals should achieve greater outcomes.
They also showed that conscientiousness helps to maintain intentional goal directed thoughts especially through autonomous intrinsic motivation. So overall individuals who are high in conscientiousness and openness to experience tend to perform better because they have stronger intentions relating to goal setting and achievement. Results showed that neuroticism is negatively related to all three types of motivation and conscientiousness is positively related to all three.
The other traits obtained inconsistent results with only weak correlations. These results show that being high in conscientiousness and low in neuroticism means an individual is more likely to be performance motivated through goal setting, expecting they can achieve the goals and having the belief behind this expectancy.
The results also showed that status striving is more motivational than accomplishment striving in performance at work, while agreeableness was positively related to communion strivings showing that individuals high in this trait are more motivated to get along with people at work rather than perform better Barrick et al. Finally another motivational aspect influenced by the five factors of personality is leisure motivation, which shows that extraversion is positively related towards leisure motivation, with most members of fitness centres being both highly extroverted and leisure motivated Ying-Chao Lin et al.
From this section of the chapter you should be able to see how influential personality can be on motivation in particular towards achievement and high performance. An individual's personality makeup has influencing factors towards how they are motivated either intrinsically or extrinsically, this has implications towards teaching and learning aspects helping allow individuals to achieve the best they can.
By understanding someone's personality we help them perform better by equipping them with the tools they respond best to and working with them in ways they find best. The majority of research in this area has shown that individuals high in conscientiousness and openness to experience and individuals slightly more extraverted some studies will be more likely to perform better on tasks and achieve more due to higher goal setting, more self-efficacy, having a higher expectancy to achieve the goals they set and being more intrinsically motivated.
These are the main ways personality can affect motivation. A study conducted by Earn researched the relationship between locus of control and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. They gave participants money rewards as an extrinsic motivator to complete a task and after this task was complete they asked some participants to remain to do another study where they would either be paid the same amount, a larger amount or no money and they also gave them different information as to why they were asked to stay.
Increasing the extrinsic reward of pay increased intrinsic motivation in participants with an internal locus of control but decreased intrinsic motivation in participants with an external locus of control.
This was due to participants with an internal locus of control concentrating on the competency rewards of their efforts, they believed they were getting increase extrinsic motivation due to their own competencies and efforts while participants with an external locus of control concentrated on the controlling factors and believed they were not asked to stay due to their competency but just because the researchers needed participants.
Another study researching the relationship between locus of control, goal setting and self-efficacy to predict individual performance was conducted by Phillip and Gully, The results showed if an individual has an internal locus of control then they will be more motivated to set and achieve goals with performance goal orientation and learning goal orientation being related to an internal locus of control.
An internal locus of control is associated with the feeling of being in control of what you are doing, having this feeling can provide more motivation towards goal setting and the expectancy to complete the task and goal, this idea links into the theory of goal setting and the value-expectancy theory.
Also internal locus of control was shown to be related to higher self-efficacy and having higher self-efficacy leads an individual to set higher goals, being more motivated to achieve these goals and therefore a higher performance. While having an external locus of control leads an individual towards wanting to avoid failure rather than achieve success and also makes an individual feel that because they have no real control over the outcome what is the point in trying so they lack the motivation to try and succeed.
Personality and achievement motivation has been explored so now we move to another related concept of personality and job motivation.
Research has shown an internal locus of control to predict higher job motivation and greater effort towards work tasks Ng et al. An individual with an internal locus of control believes they have more control over the external environment which increases the expectancy of hemselves achieving their goals, which then increases the motivation to reach the goals Ng et al. An internal locus of control is related to stronger internal motivation through higher goal setting goal setting theory and a stronger need for achievement Ng et al.
An important basis of job motivation is perceived job opportunities, which comes from perceiving greater control over the environment, showing job motivation to be related to an internal locus of control Ng et al. Job motivation is indicated through internal motivation towards tasks, expectancy, instrumentality, job involvement, self-development, self-efficacy and psychological empowerment Ng et al.
Results from a study examining the relationship between these variables of job motivation and locus of control found an internal locus of control was positively related to job motivation through these variables Ng et al.
So having a high motivation to job performance is due to an internal locus of control as individuals with this type of control are higher in these variables Ng et al.
Motivation and emotion/Book//Personality and motivation - Wikiversity
According to the research relating locus of control to motivation, having an internal locus of control is most beneficial as individuals with an internal locus of control are more likely to achieve more and and have higher job motivation due to having more intrinsic motivation. If you would like to see what type of locus of control you have take this test Locus of Control Test and to see the scoring of this test see here Scoring Eysenck's Theory of Personality and Motivation[ edit ] Hans Eysenck who came up with a biological theory of personality.
It is based on how much arousal a person experiences and this would in turn influence how much a person would interact with the world around them Acton. Psychoicism has been shown to be related to addictive behaviours through the levels of dopamine, these people are motivated towards the addiction as the dopamine levels in their bodies act as rewards and reinforcers which motivates the individual to increase the behaviour causing the addiction Eysenck, Temperament, Character and Sensation Seeking Traits and Motivation[ edit ] The personality trait sensation seeking can lead to risk taking behaviour like base jumping A study by Tanaka et al.
The specific temperament traits were novelty seekingharm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence, while the specific character traits were self-directedness, co-operativness and self-transcendence.
The results showed a relationship between intrinsic motivation and persistence through a relation of intention to achieve. All the character traits were positively related to intrinsic academic motivation and a having a mature balance of these traits is essential for developing intrinsic motivation.
Finally a common personality trait that seems to be related to motivation is sensation seeking. Thrill and adventure seeking refers to the motivation to participate in thrill-seeking, adventurous or risky activities, experience seeking refers to the motivation to participate in experiences that seek arousal through the mind and senses, disinhibition refers to the motivation an individual feels to seek release in social ways such as drinking, partying, sex and gambling, finally boredom susceptibility refers to the motivation to avoid situations or experiences that are viewed as repetitive or routine and even avoid individuals who are seen as boring Barnett, These scales help show the relationship between the personality trait of sensation seeking and the motivation they are most likely to experience.
Fam 75 1 Promoting frontline employees' quality of life: Leisure benefit systems and work-to-leisure conflicts. Manag 36 1 The role of physically active leisure for enhancing quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 36 3 Implications for therapeutic recreation practice. J 42 1 Redeeming leisure in later life. From subjective experience to social contexts pp. Leisure and productive activity. Springer Publishing Co Korpela K, Kinnunen U. How is leisure time interacting with nature related to the need for recovery from work demands?
Sci 33 1 Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors.
Motivation and emotion/Book/2010/Personality and motivation
Stud 15 3 Correlates of daily leisure-time physical activity in a community sample: Narrow personality traits and practical barriers. Psychol 32 12 Cross-sectional associations between the five factor personality traits and leisure-time sitting-time: The effect of general self-efficacy. Health 10 4 Jopp DS, Hertzog C. Assessing adult leisure activities: An extension of a self-report activity questionnaire.
Assess 22 1 Barnett L, Klitzing S. Boredom in Free Time: Sci 28 3 Reactivity and Free time: When Individual Differences are Hidden. Psychologiczne 32 2 Wydawnictwo UKW, Free time management contributes to better quality of life: A study of undergraduate students in Taiwan. Stud 12 1 Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences 5th ed. High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.
Person 72 2 Quart 87 3 Zawadzki B, Strelau J. Dif 1 A theory of action and state orientations, Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation. Seattle, USA, Adaptation Action Control Scale. Psychologiczne 40 1 Personality 70 1 The Predictors of achievement at school at different educational levels.
Wychowawcza 47 5 Cognition and leisure time activities of older adults. LLI Review 4 1 Psychological Assessment Resources Putting time in perspective: A valid reliable individual differences metric. Psychol 77 1 Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Sci 16 12 Heintzman P, Mannell RC. Spiritual functions of leisure and spiritual well-being: Coping with time pressure.
Self-management — Key to success.
J 49 1311 Zimbardo P, Boyd J. The new psychology of time that will change your life. Issues 58 1 Conditions and Quality of Life of Poles.