What is the relationship between oral and written expression

what is the relationship between oral and written expression

It is based on the use of language, oral and written expression, as an indispensable tool for communication. Language is the main form of expression of though. Pattern of recovery of oral and written expression and comprehension in the relationship between recovery in 4 specific language skills: oral and written. The difference between oral communication and written cues like the body language, facial expression, tone of voice and pitch, etc.

Finnish is a transparent orthography and has more direct letter sound correspondences than English i.

what is the relationship between oral and written expression

Their analyses included one latent variable for initial reading skills letter naming and word list readingone latent variable for reading word reading and reading comprehension and two latent variables for writing, spelling and writing fluency measured as writing as many words or sentences, or a story about a given picture. The model was a cross-lag SEM including bidirectional relations between the reading factor and a writing factor.

Initial reading skill was added as a covariate to predict Time 1 reading and writing. After removing non-significant pathways, their results showed that reading and spelling were reciprocally related during the first semester, but in subsequent semesters, reading predicted spelling, and writing fluency predicted reading. Some studies have reported that writing influences reading e.

  • Oral and Written Expression Skills and Poor Reading Comprehension
  • Difference Between Oral Communication and Written Communication
  • Miguel Hernández University

Part of the reasons for the mixed findings from previous studies is that previous studies varied in the number and type of indicators used to represent constructs. For example, Lerkkanen et al. Shanahan and Lomax on the other hand included separate latent factors for components of reading word analysis, vocabulary, and comprehension and components of writing spelling, vocabulary diversity, syntax, and story structure in a single multivariate model.

Levels of Language Approach Recent studies have analyzed separate components of reading and writing based on a levels of language approach that differentiates the levels of the word, sentence and passage Abbott et al. This approach is supported by the finding that intraindividual differences exist across levels of language word, sentence, and text for reading e. Research on linguistics, psychology and educational sciences further suggests there are common constructs underlying literacy development.

These constructs include knowledge of phonological structures, knowledge of the alphabetic principle, fluency in decoding and encoding, comprehension of oral and written language, and wide reading and writing Foorman et al.

Decoding and encoding words Alphabetic writing systems rely on a relatively small number of orthographic units or letters that map roughly onto the phonemes of speech. For encoding the same word, however, a writer chooses from the s, sh, or ch orthographic paths Shanahan, ; Sprenger-Charolles et al. Most researchers suggest that encoding is not a reversal of decoding, although both rely on knowledge of the alphabetic principle Abbott et al.

Sentence reading and writing The grammatical rules and punctuations used in creating sentences are attributes of syntax Shanahan, Both readers and writers rely on meaningful syntactic orderings of words as well as the knowledge of punctuation marks to create sentence boundaries. Several studies have shown that children are sensitive to linguistic constrains in oral language as well as written language e. Research on combining sentences suggests that writers first acquire syntax and semantics at the level of the phrase, but they are unable to form larger units of meaning without error Rose, Research on syntactic complexity of writing has shown that writers use complex syntactic structures e.

Although both reading and writing of sentences begin with developing clauses within sentences, little research has been conducted to examine the development of reading and writing at the sentence level. Text reading and writing Recent studies have shown that the correlations between passage comprehension and text composition range from moderate to high for both children and adults Berninger et al.

Readers apply a series of inferences and construct propositions based on the information provided by the text Foorman et al. Additionally, they form mental models of the text that represent the situation described in the text. However, the pattern of reasoning is different for each process: The important conclusion from the reading-writing research is that although reading and writing are not inverse processes, they rely on similar cognitive mechanisms that allow for simultaneous growth as well as transfer of knowledge.

A recent study by Abbott, Berninger and Fayol modeled the longitudinal development of reading and writing across levels of language. Their study placed emphasis on integrating levels of language by specifying several bidirectional models. Their study included data of children who were tested longitudinally from grades one through seven.

Spoken and Written English

They included handwriting a sub-word skill to clarify conflicting results of earlier longitudinal studies that show both bidirectional and unidirectional relations between word reading and spelling.

The results showed a significant bidirectional relation between word reading and spelling across grade 2 through 7.

what is the relationship between oral and written expression

For grade 1, however, only the spelling to reading pathway was significant. Their second bivariate model included pathways between word word reading and spelling as well as text level measures reading comprehension and written composition.

Similarly, this theoretical framework was applied to writing, whereby writing was conceptualized as a product of word level writing spelling and text level writing composition.

Similar to the first model, the results for this model showed significant bidirectional relations between word spelling and reading for grade 2 through 7.

Pattern of recovery of oral and written expression and comprehension in aphasic patients.

For grade 1, however, only the path from word reading to spelling was significant in this model. Similarly, at the text level, their results showed that the magnitude of the bivariate parameters were small.

The communication is planned. Legal evidence is available due to the safekeeping of records. But as we all know that everything has two aspects, same is the case with written communication as the communication is a time consuming one.

Pattern of recovery of oral and written expression and comprehension in aphasic patients.

Moreover, the sender will never know that the receiver has read the message or not. The sender has to wait for the responses of the receiver. A lot of paperwork is there, in this mode of communication. Key Differences Between Oral Communication and Written Communication The following are the major differences between oral communication and written communication: The type of communication in which the sender transmits information to the receiver through verbally speaking the message.

Differences Between Oral and Written Language

The communication mode, which uses written or printed text for exchanging the information is known as Written Communication. The pre-condition in written communication is that the participants must be literate whereas there is no such condition in case of oral communication.

Proper records are there in Written Communication, which is just opposite in the case of Oral Communication. Oral Communication is faster than Written Communication. The words once uttered cannot be reversed in the case of Oral Communication. On the other hand, editing of the original message is possible in Written Communication. Misinterpretation of the message is possible in Oral Communication but not in Written Communication.

what is the relationship between oral and written expression