BBC - History - King Charles I
Charles I (19 November – 30 January ) was the monarch over the three kingdoms of . On 1 May Charles was married by proxy to the fifteen- year-old French princess Henrietta Maria in Charles delayed the opening of his first Parliament until after the marriage was consummated, to forestall any opposition. Learn how relations between Charles I and Parliament started off badly in the first custom and precedent, that he could collect this revenue only for one year. The First Parliament: Charles' mestage - supply voted,. June 30 - Act of Tonnage and Poundage, July 7 - Adjourn- ment, July 11 - August 1 at Oxford - Debates.
Anti-Calvinists — known as Arminians — believed that human beings could influence their own fate through the exercise of free will. To protect Montagu from the stricture of Puritan members of Parliament, Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions that Charles favoured Arminianism as a clandestine attempt to aid the resurgence of Catholicism.
The Commons was outraged by the imprisonment of two of their members, and after about a week in custody, both were released. Disputes over her jointureappointments to her household, and the practice of her religion culminated in the king expelling the vast majority of her French attendants in August In Novemberthe test case in the King's Benchthe " Five Knights' Case ", found that the king had a prerogative right to imprison without trial those who refused to pay the forced loan.
According to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendonhe "threw himself upon his bed, lamenting with much passion and with abundance of tears".
When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment on 2 March,  members held the Speaker, Sir John Finchdown in his chair so that the ending of the session could be delayed long enough for resolutions against Catholicism, Arminianism and tonnage and poundage to be read out and acclaimed by the chamber. The two sceptres represent the two kingdoms of England and Scotland.
Throughout his reign Charles was obliged to rely primarily on volunteer forces for defence and on diplomatic efforts to support his sister, Elizabeth, and his foreign policy objective for the restoration of the Palatinate.
BBC Bitesize - KS3 History - Charles I, Civil War and the Restoration - Revision 1
Relying on this old statute, Charles fined individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in Previously, collection of ship money had been authorised only during wars, and only on coastal regions.
Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom. Disafforestation frequently caused riots and disturbances including those known as the Western Rising.
The City of London, preoccupied with its own grievances, refused to make any loans to the king, as did foreign powers. Arminian theology emphasised clerical authority and the individual's ability to reject or accept salvation, which opponents viewed as heretical and a potential vehicle for the reintroduction of Roman Catholicism. The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in At this time, mutual suspicion had developed between the New Model Army and Parliament, and Charles was eager to exploit it.
He was transferred first to Oatlands and then to Hampton Court Palace, where more involved but fruitless negotiations took place. He was persuaded that it would be in his best interests to escape—perhaps abroad, perhaps to France, or perhaps to the custody of Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight.
He decided on the last course, believing Hammond to be sympathetic, and fled on November Most of the uprisings in England were put down by forces loyal to Parliament after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex, and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales, and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges. But with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Prestonthe Royalists lost any chance of winning the war.
In January in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.
After the first Civil War, the Parliamentarians still accepted the premise that the king, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as king under a new constitutional settlement.
It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonorable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed. The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs.
The High Court of Justice established by the act consisted of Commissioners all firm Parliamentarians. The prosecution was led by Solicitor General John Cook. He believed that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God when he was crowned and anointed, and that the power wielded by those trying him simply grew out of a barrel of gunpowder. The court, by contrast, proposed that no man is above the law.
Over a period of a week, when Charles was asked to plead three times, he refused. It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as pro confesso: However, the trial did hear witnesses.
On January 29, 59 of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant. After the ruling, he was led from St. James's Palace, where he was confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House. This contemporary German print depicts Charles I's decapitation. When Charles was beheaded on January 30,it is reputed that he wore a heavy cotton shirt as to prevent the cold January weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have been mistaken for fear or weakness.
He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signaled the executioner he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. Phillip Henry records that moments after the execution, a moan was heard from the assembled crowd, some of whom then dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, thus starting the cult of the Martyr King.
However, no other eyewitness sources, including that of Samuel Pepys, record this. Henry's account was written during the Restoration, some 12 years after the event. Henry was 19 when the king was executed and he and his family were Royalist propaganda writers. It is known that the Commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common Hangman of London, but that he refused, and contemporary sources do not generally identify him as the king's headsman.
Charles I's Conflict with Parliament
Ellis's Historical Inquiries, however, names him as the executioner, contending that he stated so before dying. It is possible he relented and agreed to undertake the commission, but there are others who have been identified. An Irishman named Gunning is widely believed to have beheaded Charles, and a plaque naming him as the executioner is on show in Galway, Ireland. William Hewlett was convicted of regicide after the Restoration.
Henry Walker, a revolutionary journalist, or his brother William, were suspected but never charged. Various local legends around England name local worthies.
An examination performed in at Windsor suggests that the execution was done by an experienced headsman.
It was common practice for the head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor! In an unprecedented gesture, one of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwellallowed the king's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects.
The king's son, King Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but it was never built. Ten days after Charles's execution, a memoir purporting to be from Charles's hand appeared for sale.
This book, the Eikon Basilike Greek: William Levett, Charles's groom of the bedchamber, who had accompanied Charles on the day of his execution, would later swear in a statement that he had witnessed the king writing the Eikon Basilike.
John Cooke published the speech he would have delivered if Charles had entered a plea, while Parliament commissioned John Milton to write a rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes "The Iconoclast"but the response made little headway against the pathos of the Royalist book.
Various prodigies were recorded in the contemporary popular press in relation to the execution—a beached whale at Dover died within an hour of the king, a falling star appeared that night over Whitehall, and a man who had said that the king deserved to die had his eyes pecked out by crows.King Charles I of England 1600–1649
The Long Parliament known by then as the Rump Parliament which had been called by Charles I in continued to exist until Cromwell forcibly disbanded it in Upon his death inCromwell was briefly succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard Cromwell was an ineffective ruler, and the Long Parliament was reinstated in The Long Parliament dissolved itself inand the first elections in 20 years led to the election of a Convention Parliament which restored Charles I's eldest son to the monarchy as Charles II.
Upon the Restoration, Charles II added a commemoration of his father—to be observed on January 30, the date of his execution—to the Book of Common Prayer. In the time of Queen Victoria this was however removed due to popular discontent with the commemorating of a dead monarch with a major feast day of the Church; now, January 30 is only listed as a "Lesser Festival. He ordered the House to adjourn till March 2nd.
In the interval he endeavoured to negotiate with leading members. When the House met, Eliot moved three resolutions; against innovations in religion and the introduction of unorthodox opinion; against all persons who should be concerned in the levying of tonnage and poundage without direct parliamentary sanction; against all persons who should pay tonnage and poundage if it should be so demanded.
All such persons were declared to be enemies of the king. Disorder in the Commons Before the resolution could be moved the Speaker, Finch, announced that he had orders to adjourn the House again. But two of the members held him forcibly in the chair.
Charles I's Conflict with Parliament
The House broke out into wild disorder; one of the members locked the door and put the key in his pocket. When comparative calm had been restored, the Speaker refused to put the resolutions to the House.
The king's troops were approaching to compel the assembly to disperse. While the Speaker was held in the chair, Holies, a member, read the resolutions.
They were carried by acclamation. Then the doors were unlocked and the members poured out. Their dispersion was followed by the announcement that the parliament was dissolved. Eleven years passed before another parliament met.