Next, we'll focus on **the principles of closure and figure-ground, how the gestalt principles work in creating relationships between elements. According to Gestalt psychology, this apparent movement happens because The law of closure is one example of a Gestalt law of perceptual. Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. These principles are: Similarity Using unusual figure/ground relationships can add interest and sublety to an image.
An example of this is a large area of land used by numerous independent farmers to grow crops. Each farmer may use a unique planting style which distinguishes his field from another.
Another example is a field of flowers which differ only by color. Either principle can dominate the other, depending on the application and combination of the two.
The Laws of Figure/Ground, Prägnanz, Closure, and Common Fate - Gestalt Principles (3)
For example, in the grid to the left, the similarity principle dominates the proximity principle and you probably see rows before you see columns. Closure is also thought to have evolved from ancestral survival instincts in that if one was to partially see a predator their mind would automatically complete the picture and know that it was a time to react to potential danger even if not all the necessary information was readily available.
Good continuation[ edit ] Law of good continuation When there is an intersection between two or more objects, people tend to perceive each object as a single uninterrupted object.
This allows differentiation of stimuli even when they come in visual overlap. We have a tendency to group and organize lines or curves that follow an established direction over those defined by sharp and abrupt changes in directionamasing When visual elements are seen moving in the same direction at the same rate optical flowperception associates the movement as part of the same stimulus. For example, birds may be distinguished from their background as a single flock because they are moving in the same direction and at the same velocity, even when each bird is seen—from a distance—as little more than a dot.
- Gestalt Laws: Similarity, Proximity and Closure
The moving 'dots' appear to be part of a unified whole. Similarly, two flocks of birds can cross each other in a viewer's visual field, but they will nonetheless continue to be experienced as separate flocks because each bird has a direction common to its flock.
Principles of grouping
This ability likely arose from the evolutionary need to distinguish a camouflaged predator from its background. In this instance, the header is the figure and the body the ground. The header stands out more to the eye than the main body of text. The contrast between the figure and the ground. This is why most printed pages will use black ink on a white background. The figure the text is at maximum contrast with the ground the page.
Contrast provides a distinct barrier between the two. This is why the readability of content can be impaired when there is little contrast between the text and the page — it becomes more difficult for us to distinguish the figure from the ground.
Have you ever wondered why you never find red text on a blue or gray screen? Contrast is the reason. Copyright terms and licence: The relationships between figure and ground can be classified into three categories: Stable — In the case of a stable figure, the figure will be clearly identifiable from the background, and one element clearly dominates the overall layout.
Reversible —In this case, the figure and background have near-equal density. This can be used to create visual illusions in both web design and art. However, at any point in time, a reversible design will have a clear figure and a clear ground.
A classic illustration of this is the image of a Rubin vase have a look at the image above. This tends to be a black vase that is set centrally over a square white background. Down the middle, it has five contours and four projections before it flares out again to cover most of the width of the bottom.
Ambiguous — In an ambiguous design, there is little distinction between the ground and the figure.Gestalt Law of Closure
At any point, a single element might be both figure and ground at the same time. You can make your design ambiguous by blurring the boundaries between your ground and figure. Escher — a Dutch graphic artist - was a master at this. His designs tapped ambiguity to the maximum and, thanks to that, we have wonderful pictures of people climbing steps in buildings: Escher used ambiguity to make waterfalls flow around more buildings in an impossible way — the water initially flows downward, falling in places, follows a seemingly logical course, and then, mysteriously, flows up again.
Ambiguous designs are yours for the taking of your inspiration, whether you want to insert hidden writing, faces in profile that are also a single, different face, or faces made of fruity parts. The use of drop shadow and color creates the illusion of the lower blue menu being on a top layer, while the white menu remains part of the background. The background is a large and dominant image — the vista of a lake in a majestic mountain wilderness - but the content is clearly identifiable, thanks to the use of both space and contrast with the background.
This stops the background from overwhelming the content and distracting or confusing a visitor, who is probably joining in with the couple who sit with their backs to us to take in the view. The human eye likes to find simplicity and order in complex shapes — it prevents us from being overwhelmed by information overload.
Principles of grouping - Wikipedia
Our eyes assemble the content blocks into a single page. We humans like to make quick sense of things that would otherwise be upsettingly disordered. We dislike flux and need to find meaning quickly.