The studies' non-uniform definitions of urban and varying levels of analysis (i.e., . this leads to a socially disadvantaged population and high rates of deviance and Stage 2 comprised inclusion of the spatial lag term (Wy) as one independent For rural SCAs, a negative relationship was observed between population. An understanding of the relationships between these impacts is needed to . Human planting preferences lead to new plant introductions, frequently Urban was defined as an area with a minimum of people mi−2 ( Lengths and Correlates of Lag Phases in Upper-Midwest Plant Invasions. Likewise, the European Commission sees the improvement of competitiveness in Europe's lagging regions Thinking in terms of competitiveness leads to bad economic policies” So for the purposes of this paper we define urban competitiveness as: . More significantly, however, will be the relationships to national and.
Given environmental stresses and limited energy budgets, plants must invest resources in a way that maximizes their success under different environmental conditions Orians and Solbrig Suites of similar trait responses to similar environments have been noted—for example, leaves from arid regions tend to be thick, small and tough with low photosynthetic rates Orians and SolbrigReich et al.
But traits within a species can also be plastic, or change in response to different environmental conditions Chapin et al.
Associations between PFTs and environmental conditions are likely the result of environmental filters Diaz et al. That is, environmental conditions may be conducive for survival of species that have certain trait values e. To become established naturally in an urbanizing landscape, species must have a combination of attributes that allow them to pass through these filters Duncan et al.
Habitat transformation will likely remove species associated with natural habitats from the urban species pool. Landscape fragmentation creates high habitat heterogeneity in cities and patches and edges in natural habitats, as well as altering metapopulation connectivity and dispersal corridors Irwin and Bockstael ; Shrestha et al.
Human planting preferences lead to new plant introductions, frequently through the horticultural trade Dolan et al. Some patterns in urban plant traits have been observed that may be the result of environmental filtering. For example, a study of urban and rural forests in France found that urban forests were more likely to contain short-lived species with a higher SLA Vallet et al. In Germany, urban areas have higher proportions of wind-pollinated plants, plants with scleromorphic leaves and leaves with a higher SLA and lower leaf dry matter content LDMCand plants that prefer warm climates Knapp et al.
Based on their results, Knapp et al. In this study, we examined the relationships between environmental conditions and invasive species occurrence and traits along an urban-to-rural gradient.
Similarities and differences between urban, suburban and rural communities in America
Twenty-five species were surveyed across an urban-to-rural gradient in central Connecticut based on their previously known presence and prevalence in urban areas or their inclusion on the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England IPANE list of invasive and potentially invasive species. The initial urban-to-rural gradient ranged from Hartford and surrounding inner suburbs to forested rural areas km east; however, supplemental sampling extended further east to parts of metropolitan Boston, MA.
Across this geographic range, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation Hijmans et al. Extent of sampling region. The Alabama Student Survey had asked respondents to report the number of occasions over the past 30 days on which they had used alcohol beer, wine, or hard liquor and marijuana. Responses to be used were 1 0 occasions, 2 1—2 occasions, 3 3—5 occasions, 4 6—9 occasions, 5 10—19 occasions, 6 20—39 occasions, and 7 at least 40 occasions.
Apparent skewing of the distributions of the outcome variables prompted us to perform natural log transformations for these variables. During development of these 2 outcomes at the collective level, we needed to take into account the number of students sampled in each SCA.
Two steps were required to do so.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
First, with HLM6 software we adjusted the predicted values of the 2 individual-level substance-use outcomes for each student, reflecting the size of the sample from the pertinent SCA. Then, we aggregated scores and calculated each SCA-wide average score for student day alcohol use and for student day marijuana use. The social-organization factors outline collective actions taken by the school or community to promote prosocial behavior of students.
For both school and community measures, we summed the individual scores of the students for each index, and then summed the index scores separately for the school and community in each SCA. At the individual level, each protective variable was associated with moderate to high reliability scores, the Alpha scores ranging from. In cases in which such data was missing, we relied on mean substitution to describe protective roles.
Mean substitution is an adequate and commonly used method of reducing missing data, when available information is insufficient to allow more-sophisticated imputation of data. We measured the following structural characteristics for each SCA: Exploratory factor analysis guided development of a a population-disadvantages factor and b a community-instability factor; to fashion the 2 factors, we used the first 6 and the final 3 structural characteristics, respectively, from this list.
Locales in which teenagers, the poor, African Americans, and female-headed households are concentrated represent social arrangements without much access to political or social resources; this leads to a socially disadvantaged population and high rates of deviance and crime in the locale Locales in which residents are well educated and repeatedly change addresses are likely to have a high percentage of renters and to constitute relatively unstable communities 8.
The board provided us with addresses of all on- and off-premises alcohol outlets licensed during and approximately contemporaneous with the administration of the Alabama Student Survey. Ultimately, we obtained an average of the number of outlets licensed during the 2 years. In a state as rural as Alabama is, such a value can be considered a fairly successful outcome of geocoding. Nearly all the addresses we could not geocode were in remote areas and unlikely to fall within any school catchment.
To measure the 3 structural constructs of interest in our study, we added together standardized scores for the relevant measures, obtaining one score for population disadvantages, one for community instability, and one for the 3 alcohol-outlet variables number of bars, stores, restaurants. The Alpha for our population-disadvantages measure was 0. Both the Alabama Student Survey dataset and several measures used in the present study had been employed in earlier studies of drug use and other delinquent behavior 22 In contrast, rural counties have made only minimal gains since as the number of people leaving for urban or suburban areas has outpaced the number moving in.
And while the population is graying in all three types of communities, this is happening more rapidly in the suburbs than in urban and rural counties.
Lead–lag effect - Wikipedia
At the same time, urban and rural communities are becoming increasingly different from each other politically. For their part, rural adults have moved more firmly into the Republican camp.
Against this backdrop, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that many urban and rural residents feel misunderstood and looked down on by Americans living in other types of communities.
To be sure, there are many ways — and no one right way — to classify communities.
The classification based on counties used in the analysis of census data makes it more challenging to speak to the specific localities where Americans live, but it has the advantage of allowing for the data to be more easily linked among government data sources to analyze changes over time across the country.
Rural and suburban adults are somewhat more rooted in their local areas, but substantial shares in cities, suburbs and rural areas say they have lived in their communities for more than 10 years. And about six-in-ten in each type of community say they feel at least some sense of attachment to their communities, though relatively few say they are very attached. For adults who currently live in or near the place where they grew up — roughly half in rural areas and about four-in-ten in cities and suburbs — family ties stand out as the most important reason why they have never left or why they moved back after living away.
And, when it comes to their interactions with neighbors, urban, suburban and rural residents are about equally likely to say they communicate with them on a regular basis. In addition, urban and rural residents share some of the same concerns. Other problems — such as access to affordable housing in cities and access to public transportation in rural areas — are felt more acutely in some areas than in others.
The nationally representative survey of 6, adults was conducted online Feb. The survey sheds light on what divides and unites Americans across community types as well as on differences within urban, suburban and rural areas — sometimes driven by partisanship, sometimes by demographics.
The study also includes a detailed analysis of demographic trends in urban, rural and suburban counties. There are significant gaps in measures of economic well-being in urban, suburban and rural counties In addition to the divergent demographic trends taking place in urban, suburban and rural communities, the analysis finds that rural counties lag behind their urban and suburban counterparts when it comes to some measures related to economic well-being.
And while the number of employed adults ages 25 to 54 rose in urban and suburban counties sinceit declined in rural counties overall. Across community types, Democrats are more likely than Republicans to say urban areas receive less than their fair share, while Republicans are more likely to say these types of communities receive more than their fair share.