Research progress in man-land relationship evolution and its resource-environment base in China
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CiteSpace free download site http: It can display the development trend of a subject in a certain period by analyzing the keywords co-occurrence in relevant studies Liu et al.
By means of classifying literatures and limiting journal sources, the paper collects relevant core journal studies of man-land relationship in Geography and related disciplines.
Due to the wide range of man-land relationship research coverage, broadly speaking, all geographical studies can fall into the research scope of man-land relationship. In this respect, relevant achievements cannot be more fruitful.
After further analysis of the listed literatures, we find, however, it is true that the broad search covers a wide range of researches, but many of the articles have similar or even duplicate research subjects or contents, which will bring great difficulties to a systematic and targeted review of man-land relationship literatures. In a narrow sense, man-land relationship, as a theoretical system, should have its own independent theoretical development course and connotations.
There should be easily identifiable core theories and empirical system of it, even though it has a wide coverage. Paying attention to those directly related studies can not only help discover the evolution of the connotations of geographical research core, it is also beneficial for the understanding of extended research directions.
Secondly, among all the journals of geography and key journals of resources and ecology, it limits the journal sources as core journals about geography, resources and environment by compiling professional searching code. Finally, it eliminates duplications and completely irrelevant items such as the Call for Papers for journals, etc.
Population and Environment
We have got a total of Chinese papers by January 7th, as a result. For a more accurate result, we compared and analyzed the articles listed under different searching patterns and found that these papers were always listed in all searching patterns.
This shows that these papers have key position in man-land relationship research and are highly influential, basically covering all the major contents of man-land relationship research. For this reason, this paper mainly conducts bibliometric analysis on these literatures, and discussion is developed based on review of these literatures.
Man-land relationship came into being along with human society. Human beings began to perceive their surroundings through simple production activities long ago and thereby accumulated early geographical knowledge. Gradually, they began to explore the relationship between human activities and geographical environment Wu, In various historical periods, however, due to the differences in human abilities to understand, utilize and reconstruct the nature, the connotation of man-land relationship has been changing in both scope and depth with the development of social productive forces.
The history of man-land relationship development formed in the process of human-nature interaction is also the history of human social development Guo et al. According to the degree of human's dependence on nature, the evolution process of man-land relationship connotation can be roughly divided into four stages.
- A Study of Human and Animal Habitats
The first stage is primitive civilization period in which the level of productive forces was low and human beings had to passively adapt to and excessively depend on the nature. The second stage is agricultural civilization period in which productive forces had been fairly improved, and human beings began to utilize labor tools and gradually master some irrigation and farming techniques.
The relationship between man and land at that time could be generalized as simple and low-level coordination. The third stage is industrial civilization period with rapidly strengthened social productive force.
Along with the long-term and high-intensity exploitation and transformation of the nature by human society, man-land relationship is becoming increasingly strained. Resources and environmental crises break out constantly which even threaten the survival of mankind themselves. The conflict between human and nature urges us to re-examine our activities and conception, and make us gradually aware that only human society develops harmoniously with the nature can we achieve the goal of sustainability.
All of the projected growth is expected to occur in the developing world increasing from 5. Africa, which has the fastest growing population of the continents, is projected to more than double the number of its inhabitants in the next 43 years—from million to approximately 2 billion.
Globally, fertility is assumed to decline to 2. The medium variant is bracketed by a low-variant projection of 7. Fertility in the former is assumed to be half a child lower than the medium variant, and in the latter, it is assumed to be half a child higher. Consumption trends are somewhat more difficult to predict because they depend more heavily than population projections on global economic conditions, efforts to pursue sustainable development, and potential feedbacks from the environmental systems upon which the global economy depends for resources and sinks.
Nevertheless, several indicators of consumption have grown at rates well above population growth in the past century: Global GDP is 20 times higher than it was inhaving grown at a rate of 2.
In the case of CO2 emissions and footprints, the per capita impacts of high-income countries are currently 6 to 10 times higher than those in low-income countries. As far as the future is concerned, barring major policy changes or economic downturns, there is no reason to suspect that consumption trends will change significantly in the near term.
Prospects of studies on man-land relationship in the 21st century
Long-term projections suggest that economic growth rates will decline past owing to declining population growth, saturation of consumption, and slower technological change Here we review the most prominent theories in the field of population and environment. The introduction briefly touched on the work of Malthus, whose theory still generates strong reactions years after it was first published. Adherents of Malthus have generally been termed neo-Malthusians.
Neo-Malthusianism underpins the Club of Rome World Model mentioned above 9 and implicitly or explicitly underlies many studies and frameworks. The widely cited IPAT formulation—in which environmental impacts I are the product of population Paffluence Aand technology T —is implicitly framed in neo-Malthusian terms 17although not all research using the identity is Malthusian in approach IPAT itself has been criticized because it does not account for interactions among the terms e.
Although often depicted as being in opposition to Malthusianism, Malthus himself acknowledged that agricultural output increases with increasing population density just not fast enoughand Boserup acknowledged that there are situations under which intensification might not take place Cornucopian theories espoused by some neoclassical economists stand in sharper contrast to neo-Malthunisianism because they posit that human ingenuity through the increased the supply of more creative people and market substitution as certain resources become scarce will avert future resource crises In this line of thinking, market failures and inappropriate technologies are more responsible for environmental degradation than population size or growth, and natural resources can be substituted by man-made ones.
Political ecology also frequently informs the population-environment literature Many political ecologists see population and environment as linked only insofar as they have a common root cause, e.
Whatever the impact of the migrant on the rainforest, it is merely a symptom of more deeply rooted imbalances. A number of theories—often subscribed to by demographers—state that population is one of a number of variables that affect the environment and that rapid population growth simply exacerbates other conditions such as bad governance, civil conflict, wars, polluting technologies, or distortionary policies.
Some also group IPAT in this category because population is only one of the three variables contributing to environmental impacts. Many theories in the field of population and environment are built on theoretical contributions from a number of fields. A case in point is the vicious circle model VCMwhich attempts to explain sustained high fertility in the face of declining environmental resources 28 In this model, it is hypothesized that there are a number of positive feedback loops that contribute to a downward spiral of population growth, resource depletion, and rising poverty see the land degradation section.
At the simplest level, the model is neo-Malthusian, but it also owes a debt to a number of other theories.
First, it builds on the intergenerational wealth flows theory from demography, which holds that high fertility in traditional societies is beneficial to older generations owing to the net flow of wealth from children to parents over the course of their lifetimes It also borrows from a demographic theory that describes fertility as an adjustment to risk, which argues that in situations where financial and insurance markets and government safety nets are poorly developed, children serve as old-age security It is important to note that population-environment theories may simultaneously operate at different scales, and thus could all conceivably be correct.
But many scientists—neo-Malthusian or not—are justifiably concerned with the impact that even the current 6. Although theory may seem dry and academic, theoretical frameworks can be important guides to action. A good theory helps to develop well-targeted policies. In the case of neo-Malthusianism, population growth is the primary problem, and the solution is population programs. In the case of cornucopianism, market failures are the primary problem, and the solution is to fix them.
For political ecologists, inequalities at different scales are the main problem, and policies should address those inequalities. Multivariable theories offer few magic bullets but do underscore the need for action on multiple fronts to bring about sustainability.